Matthew 5:22

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New Testament Matthew 5

(Textus Receptus, Novum Testamentum, Theodore Beza, 4th folio edition. Geneva. 1598)

(King James Version, Pure Cambridge Edition 1900)

(King James Version 2016 Edition, 2016)

Contents

Interlinear

Commentary

Matthew 5:22 is the twenty-second verse of the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament and is part of the Sermon on the Mount. It is the first of what have traditionally been known as the 6 Antitheses. In this one, Jesus compares the current interpretation of "You shall not murder" from the Ten Commandments with his interpretation.

"I say to you" is one of Matthew's favourite phrases using it 68 times.

The references to brothers is probably has strong ties to the first murder of story Abel by his brother Cain. But also, the word translated as brother is gender neutral in the original Greek, and is more accurately translated as "brother or sister. The KJV correctly uses "brother" or "brethren" in these instances. Brother does not literally refer only to a sibling, or even to just the small group of followers or disciples but rather to all Israelites and even further to all human beings.

The word Raca is transliterated from the Greek manuscript, as also the Greek word itself is a transliteration of the Aramaic word reka, which literally means "empty one", "empty headed," or "foolish."

The word translated as fool is the Greek moros, which has a similar meaning to the Aramaic reka. However moros also was used to mean godless, and thus could be much more severe a term than reka. Jesus uses the term himself in Matthew 23:17 when he is deriding the Pharisees.

The verse contains an escalating scale of punishment. Those that are angry with their brother are said to be subject to judgement. This is often interpreted as the judgement of the local council, which would mete out justice in a community. The council is generally seen as a reference to the Sanhedrin, the council of leading religious thinkers that acted as the central court in Jerusalem. Most controversial is what fate is implied by the third punishment. In Greek the word used is Gehenna, it refers to a valley south of Jerusalem where there was an ever burning rubbish fire, and where in the past human sacrifices had been cremated. This is used for to describe an everlasting punishment in fire.

In the Old Testament, followers of various Ba'als and gods in the Caananite Pantheon, including Moloch, sacrificed their children by fire, especially in the area Tophet in 2 Chronicles 28:3, 33:6, Jeremiah 7:31, & 19:2-6.

Gehenna appears six other times in the Gospel of Matthew: 5:29, 5:30, 10:28, 18:19, 23:15, and 23:33 See Also Scriptures Containing 1067.

Jerome

Thomas Aquinas in his chapter "On Anger" in the Summa Theologica quotes Jerome thus:

"It would seem that it cannot be lawful to be angry. For Jerome in his exposition on Mt. 5:22, 'Whosoever is angry with his brother,' etc. says: 'Some codices add without cause. However, in the genuine codices the sentence is unqualified, and anger is forbidden altogether.'"

Manuscript Evidence

ραχα – א* D W
ρακα – Β

Greek

Textus Receptus

Complutensian Polyglot

(Complutensian Polyglot)

See Also Matthew 5:22 Complutensian Polyglot 1514

Aldine

Image:Matthew 5 22 Aldine 1518.JPG
Matthew 5:22 in Greek in the 1518 Greek New Testament of Aldine

Desiderius Erasmus

Image:Matthew 5 22 Erasmus 1522.JPG
Matthew 5:22 in Greek in the 1522 Greek New Testament of Erasmus

Colinæus

Stephanus (Robert Estienne)

Image:Matthew 5 22 Stephanus 1546.jpg
Matthew 5:22 in the 1546 Greek New Testament of Stephanus
  • 1546 (Novum Testamentum Græce) (See Also Nomina sacra)
  • 1549 (Novum Testamentum Græce. 2nd edition. Paris.)
  • 1550 ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ὀργιζόμενος τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ εἰκῆ ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει· ὃς δ' ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ Ῥακά ἔνοχος ἔσται τῷ συνεδρίῳ· ὃς δ' ἂν εἴπῃ Μωρέ ἔνοχος ἔσται εἰς τὴν γέενναν τοῦ πυρός ((Novum Testamentum Græce. 3rd edition. Paris. - Editio Regia)
  • 1551 ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ὀργιζόμενος τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ εἰκῆ ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει· ὃς δ' ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ Ῥακά ἔνοχος ἔσται τῷ συνεδρίῳ· ὃς δ' ἂν εἴπῃ Μωρέ ἔνοχος ἔσται εἰς τὴν γέενναν τοῦ πυρός ((Novum Testamentum Græce. 4th edition. Genevah)

Theodore Beza

  • 1565 (Novum Testamentum, 1st folio edition. Geneva)
Image:Matthew 5 22 Beza 1565.JPG
Matthew 5:22 in Beza's 1565 Greek New Testament
  • 1565 (Beza Octavo 1st)
Image:Matthew 5 22 Beza 1567.JPG
Matthew 5:22 in Beza's 1567 Greek New Testament
  • 1567 (Beza Octavo 2nd)
  • 1580 (Beza Octavo 3rd)
  • 1582 (Novum Testamentum. 2nd folio edition. Geneva.)
  • 1588 (Novum Testamentum. 3rd folio edition. Geneva.)
Image:Matthew 5 22 Beza 1589.JPG
Matthew 5:22 in Beza's 1588 Greek New Testament
  • 1590 (Beza Octavo 4th)
  • 1598 (Novum Testamentum. 4th folio edition. Geneva.)
Image:Matthew 5 22 beza 1598.JPG
Matthew 5:22 in Beza's 1598 Greek New Testament

See Also Matthew 5:22 Beza 1598 (Beza)

  • 1604 (Beza Octavo 5th)

Elias Hutter

Elzevir

Oxford Press

Scholz

1841 (Scholz).

Scrivener

Other Greek

Patristic Quotes

Irenaeus
"And again: It has been said, Thou shalt not kill. But I say unto you, Every one who is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgment." Irenaeus (115 - 202 AD), Against Heresies, 4.13 & 4.16
Taitian
"But I say unto you that every one who is angry with his brother without a cause is worthy of the judgement." Taitian (140 AD), Diatessaron
Cyprian
"But I say unto you, That every one who is angry with his brother without cause shall be guilty of the judgment." Cyprian (200 - 258 AD), Treatise 12
Commodianus
"Be not angry with thy devout brother without a cause." Commodianus (3rd Century AD), Instructions
Chrysostom
"But I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgment." Chrysostom (347 - 407 AD), Homilies on Matthew (6 quotes)
Augustine
"But I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment." Augustine (354 - 430 AD), Sermon on the Mount (6 quotes)
Constitutions of the Holy Apostles
"For he that is angry with his brother without a cause is obnoxious to the judgment." Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (200 - 400 AD), Book 2, Sec 6
Salvian
"For this reason the Savior added to this precept a still harsher decree, saying: “Whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment.”" (On the Government of God) 400 AD - 490 ~ (Revision Revised p. 360 by Dean John Burgon)

English Versions

  • 1395 But Y seie to you, that ech man that is wrooth to his brothir, schal be gilti to doom; and he that seith to his brother, Fy! schal be gilti to the counseil; but he that seith, Fool, schal be gilti to the fier of helle.
  • 1534 But I say vnto you whosoever is angre with hys brother shalbe in daunger of iudgement. Whosoeuer sayeth vnto his brother Racha shalbe in dauger of a cousell. But whosoeuer sayeth thou fole shalbe in dauger of hell fyre.
  • 1535 But I saye vnto you: whosoeuer is angrie with his brother, is in daunger of the iudgement. Whosoeuer sayeth vnto his brother: Racha, is in daunger of ye cousell. But whosoeuer sayeth: thou foole, is in daunger of hell fyre.
  • 1560 But I say vnto you, whosoeuer is angry with his brother vnaduisedly, shalbe culpable of iudgment. And whosoeuer sayth vnto his brother, Raca, shalbe worthy to be punished by the Councill. And whosoeuer shall say, Foole, shalbe worthy to be punished with hell fire. (Geneva Bible)
  • 1568 But I say vnto you, that who so euer is angry with his brother, vnaduisedly, shalbe in daunger of iudgement. And who so euer shall say vnto his brother, racha, shalbe in daunger of a councell: But, whosoeuer shall saye (thou) foole, shalbe in daunger of hell fire. (Bishops Bible)
  • 1611 But I say vnto you, that whosoeuer is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the Iudgement: and whosoeuer shall say to his brother, Racha, shal be in danger of the counsell: but whosoeuer shall say, Thou foole, shalbe in danger of hell fire.

Anglo-Saxon

  • 990 Ic secge eow soþlice þt ælc þe yrsað hys breþer. byð dome scyldig; Soþlice së þe segð hys breðer þü awordena. he byð geþeahte scyldig; Se þe segð þü stünta se byþ scyldig helle fyres; West Saxon
  • 1175 Ic segge eow soðlice. þt ælch þe yrseð his breðer byeð domes scyldig. Soðlice se ðe saigð his breðer þu aworðene. he beoð geþeahte scyldig. Se þe saigð þu stunta. he byoð sceldig helle feres.

Latin

  • ego autem dico vobis quia omnis qui irascitur fratri suo reus erit iudicio qui autem dixerit fratri suo racha reus erit concilio qui autem dixerit fatue reus erit gehennae ignis

Romanian

  • Dar Eu vă spun că ori şi cine se mînie pe fratele său, va cădea supt pedeapsa judecăţii; şi oricine va zice fratelui său:,Prostule!` va cădea supt pedeapsa Soborului; iar oricine -i va zice:,Nebunule`, va cădea supt pedeapsa focului gheenei.

Russian

  • А Я говорю вам, что всякий, гневающийся на брата своего напрасно, подлежит суду; кто же скажет брату своему: „рака", подлежит синедриону; а кто скажет: „безумный", подлежит геенне огненной.

Ukrainian

  • А Я вам кажу, що кожен, хто гнівається на брата свого, підпадає вже судові. А хто скаже на брата свого: рака, підпадає верховному судові, а хто скаже дурний, підпадає геєнні огненній.
  • Я ж вам глаголю: Хто сердить ся на брата свого без причини, на того буде суд; а хто скаже на брата свого: Рака [Безчесний], на того буде громадський суд; хто ж скаже: дурню, на того буде огонь пекельний.

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