Minuscule 104

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First page from the First Epistle of John with decorated initialf
First page from the First Epistle of John with decorated initialf

Minuscule 104 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), α 103 (Soden), is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment leaves. Palaeographically it had been assigned to the 12th century.[1]

Formerly it was labelled by 25a, 31p, and 7r.[2][3]



The codex contains a complete text of the Acts, Pauline epistles, and the Book of Revelation on 286 parchment leaves (size 11.7 cm by 9.4 cm), with only one lacunae (1 John 5:14- 2 John 5). Written in one column per page, in 23 lines per page. According to the colophon it was written in 1087.[1] Headpieces with geometric decorations. Initials in red. It contains prolegomena, tables of κεφαλαια, subscriptions, στιχοι.[2]

Ending of the Epistle to the Romans has the order of verses: 16:23; 16:25-27; 16:24 (as in codices P 33 256 263 365 436 459 1319 1573 1852 arm).[4]


The Greek text of the codex is a eclectic, in the Epistles it is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type and the Byzantine elsewhere. Aland placed it in Category III in epistles, and in Category V in the Acts and Book of Revelation.[5]

In 1 John 5:6 it has textual variant δι' ὕδατος καὶ αἵματος καὶ πνεύματος (through water and blood and spirit) together with the manuscripts: Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus 424c, 614, 1739c, 2412, 2495, 598m, syrh, copsa, copbo, Origen.[6][7] Bart D. Ehrman identified this reading as Orthodox corrupt reading.[8]


The manuscript was written by scribe named Ioannes Tzoutzounas. It was held in Asia Minor.[9] The manuscript was purchased by John Covel, chaplain of the Levant Company at Constantinople 1670-1676.

It was examined by Mill, Griesbach, Bloomfield, and Scrivener.[3]

It was cited in 27 edition of Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece only once (1 Cor 11:24).[10]

It is currently housed at the British Library (Harley 5537), at London.[1]

See also


  • 1. K. Aland, M. Welte, B. Köster, K. Junack, "Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments", Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1994, p. 52.
  • 2. Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments, Vol. 1. Leipzig. p. 265.
  • 3. Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, Vol. 1. London: George Bell & Sons. p. 286.
  • 4. UBS3, p. 576.
  • 5. Kurt Aland, and Barbara Aland, "The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism", transl. Erroll F. Rhodes, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1995, p. 129.
  • 6. UBS3, p. 823.
  • 7. For another variants of this verse see: Textual variants in the First Epistle of John.
  • 8. Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1993, p. 60.
  • 9. Frederic Kenyon, "Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament", London2, 1912, p. 134.
  • 10. Kurt Aland, "Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum. Locis parallelis evangeliorum apocryphorum et patrum adhibitis edidit", Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1996, p. XXVII.

Further reading

  • Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener, An Exact Transcript of the Codex Augiensis (Cambridge and London, 1859), pp. LXXVI-LXXVII. (as l)
  • Henri Omont, Notes sur les manuscrits grecs du British Museum, Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, 45 (1884), 314-50 (p. 343).

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