Minuscule 565

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Minuscule 565 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 93 (Soden), also known as the Empress Theodora's Codex. It is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on 392 purple parchment leaves (17.6 by 19.2 cm), dated paleographically to the 9th century. Written in one column per page, 17 lines per page.[1]



It is one of only two known purple minuscules (minuscule 1143 is the other) written with gold ink. The codex contains the text of the four Gospels with some lacunae (Matt. 20:18-26, 21:45-22:9, Luke 10:36-11:2, 18:25-37, 20:24-26, 11:26-48, 13:2-23, John 17:1-12). It contains the Ammonian Sections, but the Eusebian Canons were added by the later hand. It has the famous Jerusalem Colophon. The manuscript is similar to Beratinus 2.


The Greek text of the codex, is a representative of the Caesarean text-type. Aland placed it in Category III. In Mark this manuscript is closely aligned to Codex Koridethi.[2] According to Aland the quality of the text is higher in Gospel o Mark, and lower in Matthew and Luke.[3]


The manuscript comes from the area of the Black Sea.

The codex now is located at the Russian National Library (Gr. 53) at Saint Petersburg.[1]

See also


  • 1. K. Aland, M. Welte, B. Köster, K. Junack, "Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments", Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1994, p. 79.
  • 2. Philip W. Comfort, Encountering the Manuscripts. An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textual Criticism, Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2005, p. 89.
  • 3. Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland, "The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism", transl. Erroll F. Rhodes, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1995, p. 133.

Further reading

  • B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (MacMillan, 1924).
  • G. D. Kilpatrick, Codex 565 of the Gospels, TZ 25.

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