Luke 7:31

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New Testament Luke 7

(Textus Receptus, Novum Testamentum, Theodore Beza, 4th folio edition. Geneva. 1598)

(King James Version, Pure Cambridge Edition 1900)

(King James Version 2016 Edition, 2016)

Contents

Interlinear

Commentary

And the Lord said

A faded footnote at Luke 7:31 in MS 8
A faded footnote at Luke 7:31 in MS 8

The introductory phrase Εἶπε δὲ Κύριος - “And the Lord said” is a very common phrase in the scriptures. While most reformation era bibles include it, it is lacking in most modern versions. The phrase was most probably dropped out of circulation due to Homoioteleuton, as the word τίνι appears twice in the verse. Although the omission of this phrase does not have a significant impact upon doctrine, in the context of Luke 7, when the words “And the Lord said” are missing, it brings confusion about who said verse 29 and 30 and the words of Jesus seem abrupt and sudden, if the bold and underlined words below are missing:

27 This is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. 28 For I say unto you, Among those that are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptist: but he that is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he. 29 And all the people that heard him, and the publicans, justified God, being baptized with the baptism of John. 30 But the Pharisees and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against themselves, being not baptized of him. 31 And the Lord said, Whereunto then shall I liken the men of this generation? and to what are they like?

In Matthew 11, there is no interlude between Christ speaking about John or the children in the marketplace. But clearly in Luke, the interjection warrants the words “And the Lord said” or else there is a general inconsistency. Compare Matthew 11:7-19.

Pre Erasmus

The phrase “Tunc Iesus dixit” (Then Jesus said) appears here in Codex Parisinus, a fragmentary Vulgate manuscript made in the 500’s or 600’s. “Tunc Iesus dixit” is in (vgms, 6th CE) noted in the Stuttgart vg ed.

Another example of a printed pre Erasmus edition with <ait autem dominus> is Sacon's of 1506. The Greek text <eipe de o kurios> can be indicated as a glos and can not be the incipit of a lectionary pericope. There the standard phraze is: <eipen o kurios>. It is printed as "Ait at dns." (with overscoring) in line 15 of the left column of digital page 652.

([1]) (From [2])

Have in mind: the Greek text <eipe de o kurios> can be indicated as a glos and can not be the incipit of a lectionary pericope. There the standard phraze is: <eipen o kurios>.

Brixianus

Also the Old Latin f (Brixianus, 6th CE) reads something similar:

"Tunc ergo Iesus dixit".

Codex Campianus

Luke 7:31 in Codex Campianus
Luke 7:31 in Codex Campianus
Marginal at Luke 7:31 in Codex Campianus
Marginal at Luke 7:31 in Codex Campianus

Codex Campianus designated by M or 021 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 72 (von Soden), is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament, dated palaeographically to the 9th century. It contains the phrase “Εἶπε δὲ Κύριος” in a marginal note.

Other Latin

Ait autem Dominus: Cui ergo similes dicam homines generationis hujus? et cui similes sunt? (Clementine Vulgate)
...........................cui ergo similes dicam homines generationis huius et cui similes sunt

According to the critical text of the Vulgate, AIT AUTEM DOMINUS was the reading of the Vulgate as printed in every 15th and 16th-century edition.

In Luke 22:31 the exact words "εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κς" appear.

Theodore Beza

Footnote at Luke 7:31 in the 1565 New Testament of Beza
Footnote at Luke 7:31 in the 1565 New Testament of Beza
Footnote at Luke 7:31 in the 1588 New Testament of Beza
Footnote at Luke 7:31 in the 1588 New Testament of Beza
Footnote at Luke 7:31 in the 1598 New Testament of Beza
Footnote at Luke 7:31 in the 1598 New Testament of Beza

Beza said in his 1556 edition:

"Haec verba deerant in omnibus vetustis codicibus, quae tamen prorsus videntur requiri, …" ("These words are wanting in the copies of all the ancient, which, however, for all that seem necessary ...”)

In the 1588 edition Beza has the Latin “dixit praeterea Dominus” which is used in Exodus 20:22.

William Rainolds

English Roman Catholic theologian and Biblical scholar William Rainolds (1544-1594) and elder brother of John Rainolds, one of the chief Anglican scholars engaged on the King James Bible, claimed that Beza had correctly followed the Latin in the reading of Luke 7:31 and that it was originally in the Greek Jerome used:

...if we prefer our latin edition before the greeke, and thinke that peece repeated, not to be of the text, what reason we haue so to do, hath bene shewed in part, and Beza by his exam∣ple iustifieth our doing. For so him self doth more thē once. vpon S.* Luke he thus writeth. Omnia quae vidi exemplaria ita scriptum habent. Al the greeke examples vvhich I haue seene,*reade so. But the old interpreter readeth other∣vvise, et rectius vt opinor, and better as I suppose. Againe in the same gospel. . Haec verba deerant in omnibus vetustis codicibus,*quae tamen prorsus videntur requiri. These vvordes vvanted in al the old (greeke) bookes, vvhich for al that seeme necessarie.* And therefore he supplieth his text vvith them out of our translatiō, and so do the english translators, who seldome depart frō him but like good scholers turne in to english, his latin. ([3])

Scrivener

Introductory clauses or Proper Names are frequently interpolated at the commencement of Church-lessons (περικοπαί), whether from the margin of ordinary manuscripts of the Greek Testament (where they are usually placed for the convenience of the reader), or from the Lectionaries or proper Service Books, especially those of the Gospels (Evangelistaria). Thus in our English Book of Common Prayer the name of Jesus is introduced into the Gospels for the 14th, 16th, 17th, and 18th Sundays after Trinity; and whole clauses into those for the 3rd and 4th Sundays after Easter, and the 6th and 24th after Trinity8. To this cause may be due the prefix εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος Luke [pg 012] vii. 31; καὶ στραφεὶς πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς εἶπε Luke x. 22; and such appellations as ἀδελφοί or τέκνον Τιμόθεε (after σὺ δέ in 2 Tim. iv. 5) in some copies of the Epistles. The inserted prefix in Greek Lectionaries is sometimes rather long, as in the lesson for the Liturgy on Sept. 14 (John xix. 6-35). Hence the frequent interpolation (e.g. Matt. iv. 18; viii. 5; xiv. 22) or changed position (John i. 44) of Ἰησοῦς. A peculiarity of style in 1, 2 Thess. is kept out of sight by the addition of Χριστός in the common text of 1 Thess. ii. 19; iii. 13: 2 Thess. i. 8, 12. (A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, Vol. I. by Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener)

John Gill

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the Lord said,.... This clause is not in the Syriac, Arabic, Persic, and Ethiopic versions, nor in some copies, nor in Beza's most ancient copy; and being omitted, more clearly shows, that the two former verses are the words of Christ, and not an observation the evangelist makes, on the different behaviour of Christ's hearers, upon the commendation he had given of John:
whereunto then shall I liken the men of this generation; or "to what men shall I liken them", as the Persic version: the phrase "men of this generation", is Rabbinical; so דרא ההוא אושי, the men of that "generation", are more beautiful in work than these, says the Targumist on Ecclesiastes 7:11. "And to what are they like?" To that which follows.

Mill's

Luke 7:31 in the 1707 New Testament of Mill
Luke 7:31 in the 1707 New Testament of Mill
Footnote at Luke 7:31 in the 1707 New Testament of Mill
Footnote at Luke 7:31 in the 1707 New Testament of Mill

Adam Clarke

Adam Clarke's Commentary says:

And the Lord said - Almost every MS. of authority and importance, with most of the versions, omit these words. As the Evangelistaria (the books which contained those portions of the Gospels which were read in the Churches) began at this verse, the words were probably at first used by them, to introduce the following parable. There is the fullest proof that they never made a part of Luke's text. Every critic rejects them. Bengel and Griesbach leave them out of the text. (The Adam Clarke Commentary)

Tischendorf

Tischendorf adds g1, but this has been seen as an error. Hugh Houghton checked the film and it has no addition. Codex B has no umlaut.

Samuel Prideaux Tregelles

Luke 7:31 in Tregelles
Luke 7:31 in Tregelles
Footnote at Luke 7:31 in Tregelles
Footnote at Luke 7:31 in Tregelles
Another Footnote at Luke 7:31 in Tregelles
Another Footnote at Luke 7:31 in Tregelles

E.W. Bullinger

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes says:

And the Lord said. All the texts omit these words. this generation. See note on Matthew 11:16.

John William Burgon

On Luke 7:31, John William Burgon says that 1 out of 40 have the words (Causes of the Corruption p. 72, also, earlier, verse referenced Last 12 verses, p. 216) and his position is that the phrase came in from the lectionary introduction, a position also taken by Scrivener.

Barnes' Notes

Barnes' Notes on the Bible has:

"And the Lord said." This clause is wanting in almost all the manuscripts, and is omitted by the best critics.

Scholz

Scholz informs us that they are also found in some manuscripts (Principles of textual criticism: p. 48, 1848)

Ellicott

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers has

(31-35) Whereunto then shall I liken . . .—See Notes on Matthew 11:16-19. Some of the better MSS. omit the introductory words, “and the Lord said.”

NASB

The NASB has

"To what then shall I compare the men of this generation, and what are they like?

New International Version

The 2011 NIV follows the Textus Receptus here in the 2011 NIV. Luke 7:31 has, “Jesus went on to say.”

Jan Krans

On a Yahoo Group, Jan Krans said:

The words εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος (let us hope my Unicode survives Yahoo this time) are indeed already found in Erasmus' first edition. They actually represent a typical pro-Vulgate correction through (rather straightforward) retranslation, by either Erasmus or his assistants. As the change is not found in min. 2 (f. 142r), it was probably made during the composition, when the Latin translation (often no more than a corrected Vulgate text) and Greek text were brought into alignment; the obvious difference emerging then may have prompted the decision. [So much for the providential nature of the TR ...]
We will have to wait for vol. VI-1 of the Amsterdam Opera Omnia of Erasmus for more information. There is no annotation by Erasmus on these words.
Though absent in the Complutensian Polyglot, and marked in Stephanus' 1550 edition as lacking in all manuscripts consulted for that edition, the words remained part of the TR, at least partly because Beza, already in his 1556 edition, wrote: "Haec verba deerant in omnibus vetustis codicibus, quae tamen prorsus videntur requiri, …" [So much for those who think that 16th-century editors followed some kind of majority principle …] ([4])

Greek

Textus Receptus

Complutensian Polyglot

Luke 7:31 in Greek in the 1514 Complutensian Polyglot
Luke 7:31 in Greek in the 1514 Complutensian Polyglot

See Also Luke 7:31 Complutensian Polyglot 1514

Desiderius Erasmus

Luke 7:31 in Greek and Latin in the 1516 Novum Instrumentum omne of Erasmus
Luke 7:31 in Greek and Latin in the 1516 Novum Instrumentum omne of Erasmus

Colinæus

Stephanus (Robert Estienne)

Luke 7:31 in Stephanus' 1550 Greek New Testament
Luke 7:31 in Stephanus' 1550 Greek New Testament
  • 1550 εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριος, Τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι (Robert Estienne (Stephanus) 3rd - Editio Regia)
  • 1551 εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριος, Τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι (Robert Estienne (Stephanus) 4th)

Theodore Beza

  • 1565 (Beza 1st)
  • 1565 (Beza Octavo 1st)
  • 1567 (Beza Octavo 2nd)
  • 1580 (Beza Octavo 3rd)
  • 1582 (Beza 2nd)
  • 1589 (Beza 3rd)
  • 1590 (Beza Octavo 4th)
Luke 7:31 in Beza's 1598 Greek New Testament
Luke 7:31 in Beza's 1598 Greek New Testament

See Also Luke 7:31 Beza 1598 (Beza)

  • 1604 (Beza Octavo 5th)

The Nuremberg Polyglot‎

The 1599 Nuremberg Polyglot‎ contains the exact reading of the KJV in Greek Εἶπε δὲ Κύριος

Εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος in Luke 7:31 in the 1599 Hutter Polyglot, 12 years before the publication of the KJV
Εἶπε δὲ Κύριος in Luke 7:31 in the 1599 Hutter Polyglot, 12 years before the publication of the KJV

Elzevir

Scholz

Scrivener

  • 1894 εἶπε δὲ ὁ Κύριος, Τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι;

Other Greek

  • 400 Τινι ουν ομοιωσω τους ανθρωπους της γενεας ταυτης και τινι εισιν ομοιοι(Codex Vaticanus) 1209 (B or 03) (von Soden δ1) - Vatican Library (See Also Nomina sacra)
  • 1857 (Tregelles' Greek New Testament)
  • Τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι; (Tischendorf 8th Ed.)
  • 1881 Τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι; (Westcott & Hort)
  • 1904 Τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι; (Greek orthodox Church)
  • 1904 Τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι; (Nestle)

Anglo Saxon Translations

  • 1000 Hwam telle ic gelíce þisse cneorisse men. & h[w]am synt hi gelice; (Anglo-Saxon Gospels Manuscript 140, Corpus Christi College by Aelfric)
  • 1200 Hwan telle ic ge-lic þeosse cneorisse men. & hwam synde hi ge-lice. (Anglo-Saxon Gospels Hatton Manuscript 38, Bodleian Library by unknown author)

English Translations

Luke 7:31 in the 1557 Geneva Bible
Luke 7:31 in the 1557 Geneva Bible
Luke 7:31 in the 1568 Bishops' Bible
Luke 7:31 in the 1568 Bishops' Bible
Luke 7:31 in the 1611 King James Version
Luke 7:31 in the 1611 King James Version

Foreign Language Versions

Arabic

  • ثم قال الرب فبمن اشبه اناس هذا الجيل وماذا يشبهون. (Arabic Smith & Van Dyke)

Aramaic

  • (Aramaic Peshitta)

Basque

  • Orduan erran ceçan Iaunac, Norequin bada comparaturen ditut generatione hunetaco guiçonac? eta cer irudi dute?

Bulgarian

  • 1940 (Bulgarian Bible)

Chinese

  • 1 主 又 说 : 这 样 , 我 可 用 甚 麽 比 这 世 代 的 人 呢 ? 他 们 好 像 甚 麽 呢 ? (Chinese Union Version (Simplified))
  • 1 主 又 說 : 這 樣 , 我 可 用 甚 麼 比 這 世 代 的 人 呢 ? 他 們 好 像 甚 麼 呢 ? (Chinese Union Version (Traditional))

French

  • 1669 Alors le Seigneur dit, A qui donc accomparerai-je les hommes de cette génération? Et à quoi ressemblent-ils? (Bible de Genève)
  • A qui donc comparerai-je les hommes de cette generation, et à qui ressemblent-ils? (French Darby)
  • 1744 Alors le Seigneur dit : à qui donc comparerai-je les hommes de cette génération; et à quoi ressemblent-ils? (Martin 1744)
  • 1744 (Ostervald 1744)

German

  • 1545 (Luther 1545)
  • 1871 (Elberfelder 1871)
  • 1912 Aber der HERR sprach: Wem soll ich die Menschen dieses Geschlechts vergleichen, und wem sind sie gleich? (Luther 1912)

Italian

  • 1649 E il Signore disse: A chi dunque assomiglierò gli uomini di questa generazione? ed a chi sono essi simili? (Giovanni Diodati Bible 1649)
  • 1927 A chi dunque assomiglierò gli uomini di questa generazione? E a chi sono simili? (Riveduta Bible 1927)

Japanese

Latin

  • cui ergo similes dicam homines generationis huius et cui similes sunt Latin Vulgate
  • 1527 (Erasmus 1527)
  • 1527 (Erasmus Vulgate 1527)

Pidgin

  • 1996 (Pidgin King Jems)

Romainian

  • 2010 (Biblia Traducerea Fidela în limba româna)

Russian

  • 1876 Тогда Господь сказал: с кем сравню людей рода сего? и кому они подобны? Russian Synodal Version

Phonetically:

Spanish

  • Y dijo el Señor: ¿A quién, pues, compararé los hombres de esta generación, y a qué son semejantes? (RVG Spanish)

Swedish

  • 1917 Vad skall jag då likna detta släktes människor vid? Ja, vad äro de lika? (Swedish - Svenska 1917)

Tagalog

  • 1905 Sa ano ko itutulad ang mga tao ng lahing ito, at ano ang kanilang katulad? (Ang Dating Biblia 1905)

Tok Pisin

  • 1996 (Tok Pisin King Jems)

Vietnamese

  • 1934 Vậy, ta sẽ sánh người đời nầy với gì, họ giống như ai? (VIET)

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