Hebrew alphabet

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The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף-בֵּית עִבְרִי, Alephbet 'Ivri), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic. There have been two script forms in use. The original old Hebrew script is known as the paleo-Hebrew script (which has been largely preserved, in an altered form, in the Samaritan script), while the present "square" form of the Hebrew alphabet is a stylized form of the Aramaic script. Various "styles" (in current terms, "fonts") of representation of the letters exist. There is also a cursive Hebrew script, which has also varied over time and place.

The Hebrew alphabet has 22 letters, five of them have different forms when they are used at the end of a word. Hebrew is written from right to left. Originally, the alphabet was an abjad consisting only of consonants. Like other abjads, such as the Arabic alphabet, means were later devised to indicate vowels by separate vowel points, known in Hebrew as niqqud. In rabbinic Hebrew, the letters א ה ו י are also used as matres lectionis to represent vowels. In modern usage of the alphabet, as in the case of Yiddish (except that ע replaces ה) and to some extent modern Israeli Hebrew, vowels may be indicated. Today, the trend is toward full spelling with these letters acting as true vowels.

Before the adoption of the present script, Hebrew was written by the ancient Israelites, both Jews and Samaritans, using the paleo-Hebrew alphabet. During the 3rd century BC, Jews began to use a stylized form of the Aramaic alphabet,[1] while the Samaritans continued to use a form of the paleo-Hebrew script, called the Samaritan script. The present "square script" Hebrew alphabet is a stylized version of the Aramaic alphabet which was adopted from that used by the Persian Empire (which in turn was adopted from the Arameans). After the fall of the Persian Empire, Jews used both scripts before settling on the Aramaic form. For a limited time thereafter, the use of the paleo-Hebrew script among Jews was retained only to write the Tetragrammaton, but soon that custom was also abandoned.

Contents

History

See Also History of the Hebrew alphabet

Aleppo Codex: 10th century CE Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing. Text of Joshua 1:1
Aleppo Codex: 10th century CE Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing. Text of Joshua 1:1

According to contemporary scholars, the original Hebrew script developed alongside others used in the region during the late second and first millennia BC. It is closely related to the Phoenician script, which itself probably gave rise to the use of alphabetic writing in Greece (Greek). A distinct Hebrew variant, called the paleo-Hebrew alphabet, emerged by the 10th century BCE,[2] an example of which is represented in the Gezer calendar. It was commonly used in the ancient Israelite kingdoms of Israel and Judah.

Following the fall of the Kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BC, in the Babylonian exile, Jews adopted the Aramaic script, which was another offshoot of the same family of scripts, evolved into the Jewish, or "square" script, that is still in use today and known as the "Hebrew alphabet". The Samaritan script, used in writing Samaritan Hebrew, is descended directly from the paleo-Hebrew script.

The Hebrew alphabet was later adapted and used for writing languages of the Jewish diaspora - such as Karaim, Judæo-Arabic, Ladino, Yiddish, etc. The Hebrew alphabet came again into everyday use with the rebirth of the Hebrew language as a spoken language in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Description

General

In the traditional form, the Hebrew alphabet is an abjad consisting only of consonants, written from right to left. It has 22 letters, five of which use different forms at the end of a word. The Hebrew alphabet has only one case; there are no distinct capital or lowercase letters.

Vowels

In the traditional form, vowels are indicated by the weak consonants Aleph (א), He (ה), Vav (ו), or Yodh (י) serving as vowel letters, or matres lectionis: the letter is combined with a previous vowel and becomes silent, or by imitation of such cases in the spelling of other forms. Also, a system of vowel points to indicate vowels (diacritics), called niqqud, was developed. In modern forms of the alphabet, as in the case of Yiddish and to some extent modern Israeli Hebrew, vowels may be indicated. Today, the trend is toward full spelling with the weak letters acting as true vowels.

When used to write Yiddish, vowels are indicated, using certain letters, either with or without niqqud-diacritics (e.g., respectively: "אָ", "יִ" or "י", "ע", see Yiddish orthography), except for Hebrew words, which in Yiddish are written in their Hebrew spelling.

To preserve the proper vowel sounds, scholars developed several different sets of vocalization and diacritical symbols called niqqud (ניקוד, literally "applying points"). One of these, the Tiberian system, eventually prevailed. Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, and his family for several generations, are credited for refining and maintaining the system. These points are normally used only for special purposes, such as Biblical books intended for study, in poetry or when teaching the language to children. The Tiberian system also includes a set of cantillation marks used to indicate how scriptural passages should be chanted, used in synagogue recitations of scripture (although these marks do not appear in the scrolls), called "trope". In everyday writing of modern Hebrew, niqqud are absent; however, patterns of how words are derived from Hebrew roots (called shorashim, or triliteral roots) allow Hebrew speakers to determine the vowel-structure of a given word from its consonants based on the word's context and part of speech.

The alphabet

Neither the old Hebrew script nor the modern Hebrew script have case, but five letters have special final forms, called sofit (Heb. סופית, meaning in this case "final" or "ending") form, used only at the end of a word, somewhat as in the Arabic and Mandaic alphabets. These are shown below the normal form, in the following table (letter names are Unicode standard; see variants of names and their pronunciation below). Hebrew is written from right to left.

AlefBetGimelDaletHeyVavZayinHetTetYodKaf
א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י כ
ך
LamedMemNunSamekhAyinPeTsadikQofReshShinTaf
ל מ נ ס ע פ צ ק ר ש ת
ם ן ף ץ

Note: The chart reads from right to left.

Pronunciation of letter names

See Hebrew phonology and Yiddish phonology for phonetic guides to the phonemic transcriptions.

letter Name of letter Established pronunciation
in English
[]
standard Israeli
pronunciation
colloquial Israeli
pronunciation (if differing)
Yiddish / Ashkenazi
pronunciation
MW[] Unicode
אAlephAlef/ˈɑːlɛf/, /ˈɑːlɨf//ˈalef/ /ˈalɛf/
בּ Beth Bet /bɛθ/, /beɪt/ /bet/  /bɛɪs/
ב/vɛɪs/
גGimelGimel/ˈɡɪməl/ˈɡimel/ /ˈɡimːɛl/
דDalethDalet/ˈdɑːlɨθ/, /ˈdɑːlɛt//ˈdalet//ˈdaled//ˈdalɛd/
הHeHe/heɪ//he//hej//hɛɪ/
וWawVav/vɑːv//vav/ /vɔv/
זZayinZayin/ˈzaɪ.ɨn//ˈzajin//ˈza.in//ˈzajin/
חHethHet/hɛθ/, /xeɪt//ħet//χet/ / χɛs/
טTethTet/tɛθ/, /teɪt//tet/ /tɛs/
יYodYod/jɔːd//jod//jud//jud/
כּ Kaph Kaf /kɑːf/ /kaf/   /kɔf/
כ/χɔf/
ך Final Kaf /kaf sofit/  /laŋɡɛ χɔf/
לLamedLamed/ˈlɑːmɛd//ˈlamed/ /ˈlamɛd/
מMemMem/mɛm//mem/ /mɛm/
ם Final Mem /mem sofit/ /ʃlɔs mɛm/
נNunNun/nuːn//nun/ /nun/
ן Final Nun  /nun sofit/ /laŋɡɛ nun/
סSamekhSamekh/ˈsɑːmɛk//ˈsameχ/ /ˈsamɛχ/
עAyinAyin/ˈaɪ.ɨn//ˈʕajin//ˈa.in//ˈajin/
פּ Pe Pe /peɪ/ /pe/ /pej/ /pɛɪ/
פ/fɛɪ/
ף Final Pe /pe sofit//pej sofit/ /laŋɡɛ fɛɪ/
צSadheTsadi/ˈsɑːdə/, /ˈsɑːdi//ˈtsadi//ˈtsadik/ /ˈtsɔdi/, /ˈtsɔdik/, /ˈtsadɛk/
ץ Final Tsadi/ˈtsadi sofit//ˈtsadik sofit/ /laŋɡɛ ˈtsadɛk/
קQophQof/kɔːf//kof//kuf//kuf/
רReshResh/rɛʃ/, /reɪʃ//reʃ//rejʃ//rɛɪʃ/
שShinShin/ʃiːn/, /ʃɪn//ʃin/ /ʃin, sin/
תּ Tav Tav /tɑːf/, /tɔːv/ /tav/ /taf//tɔv/, /tɔf/
ת/sɔv/, /sɔf/

Orthographic variants

See Also Cursive Hebrew, Rashi script, Ashuri alphabet

The following table displays orthographic variants of each letter. For the five letters that have a different final form used at the end of words, the final forms are displayed beneath the regular form.

The three lettering variants currently in use are block, cursive and Rashi. Block and Rashi are used in books. Block lettering dominates, with Rashi lettering typically used for certain editorial inserts (as in the glosses of Isserles to the Shulchan Aruch) or biblical commentaries (as in the commentary of Rashi) in various standard literary works. Cursive is used almost exclusively when handwriting, unless block lettering is desired for stylistic purposes (as in signage).

For additional ancestral scripts, see Ancestral scripts and script variants.

Letter
name
(Unicode)
Variants
Modern Hebrew Ancestral
Serif Sans-
serif
Mono-
spaced
Cursive Rashi Phoenician Paleo-Hebrew Aramaic
Alef א א א image:Hebrew letter Alef Rashi.png Aleph Image:Paleo-hebrew - alef.png
Bet ב ב ב Image:Hebrew letter Bet handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Bet Rashi.png Image:Phoenician beth.png Bet
Gimel ג ג ג Image:Hebrew letter Gimel handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Gimel Rashi.png Gimel Gimel
Dalet ד ד ד Image:Hebrew letter Daled handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Daled Rashi.png Image:Phoenician daleth.png Daled
He ה ה ה Image:Hebrew letter He handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter He Rashi.png He Heh
Vav ו ו ו Image:Hebrew letter Vav handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Vav Rashi.png Image:Phoenician waw.png Vav
Zayin ז ז ז Image:Hebrew letter Zayin handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Zayin Rashi.png Zayin Zayin
Het ח ח ח Image:Hebrew letter Het handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Het Rashi.png Image:Phoenician heth.png Khet
Tet ט ט ט Image:Hebrew letter Tet handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Tet Rashi.png Image:Phoenician teth.png Tet
Yod י י י Image:Hebrew letter Yud handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Yud Rashi.png Image:Phoenician yodh.png Yud
Kaf כ כ כ Image:Hebrew letter Kaf handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Kaf-nonfinal Rashi.png Image:Phoenician kaph.png Khof
Final Kaf ך ך ך Image:Hebrew letter Kaf-final handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Kaf-final Rashi.png
Lamed ל ל ל Image:Hebrew letter Lamed handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Lamed Rashi.png Image:Phoenician lamedh.png Lamed
Mem מ מ מ Image:Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Mem-nonfinal Rashi.png Image:Phoenician mem.png Mem
Final Mem ם ם ם Image:Hebrew letter Mem-final handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Mem-final Rashi.png
Nun נ נ נ Image:Hebrew letter Nun handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Nun-nonfinal Rashi.png Image:Phoenician nun.png Nun
Final Nun ן ן ן Image:Hebrew letter Nun-final handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Nun-final Rashi.png
Samekh ס ס ס Image:Hebrew letter Samekh handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Samekh Rashi.png Image:Phoenician samekh.png Samekh
Ayin ע ע ע Image:Hebrew letter Ayin handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Ayin Rashi.png Image:Phoenician ayin.png Ayin
Pe פ פ פ Image:Hebrew letter Pe handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Pe-nonfinal Rashi.png Image:Phoenician pe.png Pey
Final Pe ף ף ף Image:Hebrew letter Pe-final handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Pe-final Rashi.png
Tsadi צ צ צ Image:Hebrew letter Tsadik handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Tsadik-nonfinal Rashi.png Image:Phoenician sade.png Tzadi ,
Final Tsadi ץ ץ ץ Image:Hebrew letter Tsadik-final handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Tsadik-final Rashi.png
Qof ק ק ק Image:Hebrew letter Kuf handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Kuf Rashi.png Image:Phoenician qoph.png Quf
Resh ר ר ר Image:Hebrew letter Resh handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Resh Rashi.png Image:Phoenician res.png Resh
Shin ש ש ש Image:Hebrew letter Shin handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Shin Rashi.png Image:Phoenician sin.png Shin
Tav ת ת ת Image:Hebrew letter Taf handwriting.png image:Hebrew letter Taf Rashi.png Image:Phoenician taw.png Tof

Yiddish symbols

Symbol Explanation
װ ױ ײ ײַ These are intended for Yiddish. They are not used in Hebrew d. See: Yiddish orthography.
בֿ The rafe (רפה) diacritic is no longer regularly used in Hebrew. In masoretic manuscripts and some other older texts the soft fricative consonants and sometimes matres lectionis are indicated by a small line on top of the letter. Its use has been largely discontinued in modern printed texts. It is still used to mark fricative consonants in the YIVO orthography of Yiddish.

Numeric values of letters

See Also Hebrew numerals

Hebrew letters are also used to denote numbers, nowadays used only in specific contexts, e.g. denoting dates in the Hebrew calendar, denoting grades of school in Israel, other listings (e.g. שלב א׳, שלב ב׳ – "phase a, phase b"), commonly in Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) in a practice known as gematria, and often in religious contexts.

letternumeric value letternumeric value letternumeric value
א1י10ק100
ב2כ20ר200
ג3ל30ש300
ד4מ40ת400
ה5נ50ך500
ו6ס60ם600
ז7ע70ן700
ח8פ80ף800
ט9צ90ץ900

The numbers 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 are often represented by the juxtapositions ק״ת, ר״ת, ש״ת, ת״ת, and ק״תת respectively. Adding a geresh ("׳") to a letter multiplies its value by one thousand, for example, the year 5769 is portrayed as ה׳תשס״ט, where ה represents 5000, and תשס״ט represents 769.

Transliterations and transcriptions of Hebrew letters

Main articles: Romanization of Hebrew, Hebrew phonology

The following table lists transliterations and transcriptions of Hebrew letters used in Modern Hebrew. For Hebrew vowel diacritics, see niqqud; for the phonology of Biblical Hebrew, see Biblical Hebrew; for the Yiddish language, see Yiddish orthography and Yiddish phonology.

Clarifications:

  • For some letters, the Academy of the Hebrew Language offers a precise transliteration which differs from the regular standard it has set. When omitted, no such precise alternative exists and the regular standard applies.
  • The IPA phonemic transcription is specified whenever it uses a different symbol than the one used for the regular standard Israeli transliteration.
  • The IPA phonetic transcription is specified whenever it differs from IPA phonemic transcription.

Note: SBL's transliteration system, recommended in its Handbook of Style,<ref name=SBL>See online overview at Biblical Hebrew Resources</ref> differs slightly from the 2006 precise transliteration system of the Academy of the Hebrew Language; for "ו" SBL uses "v" (≠ AHL "w"), for "צ" SBL uses "" (≠ AHL ""), and for בג״ד כפ״ת with no dagesh, SBL uses the same symbols as for with dagesh (i.e. "b", "g", "d", "k", "f", "t").

Hebrew letter Standard
Israeli
transliteration
regular
<ref name=akademya/>
standard
Israeli
transliteration
precise
<ref name=akademya/>
IPA phonemic
transcription
IPA phonetic
transcription
א
consonantal, in
initial word
positions
none[A1] Template:IPAblink
א
consonantal, in
non initial word
positions
' ʾ Template:IPAslink
א
silent
none[A2]
בּ b
ב v
גּ g g
ג
ג׳ǧ[B1]<ref name=foreign_sounds/> Template:IPAslink
דּ d d
ד
ה
consonantal
h
ה
silent
none[A3]
ו
consonantal
v w
וּ u
וֹ o Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink
ז z
ז׳ž[B2]<ref name=foreign_sounds/> Template:IPAslink
ח [C1] Template:IPAslink or Template:IPAslink Template:IPAblink
dialectical
Template:IPAblink
ט t
י
consonantal
y Template:IPAslink
י
part of hirik male
(/i/ vowel)
i
י
part of tsere male
(/e/ vowel or
/ei/ diphthong)
e é Template:IPAslink or /ej/ Template:IPAblink or [e̞j]/
כּ, ךּ<ref name="kaf_sofit"/> k
כ, ך kh[C2] Template:IPAslink or Template:IPAslink Template:IPAblink
ל l
מ, ם m
נ, ן n
ס s
ע
in initial or final
word positions
none[A4] ʿ only in initial
word position
Template:IPAblink
dialectical
Template:IPAslink
ע
in medial
word positions
' ʿ Template:IPAslink
dialectical
Template:IPAslink
פּ[D] p
פ, ף f
צ, ץ ts Template:IPAslink
צ׳, ץ׳č[B3]<ref name=foreign_sounds/> Template:IPAslink
ק k q
ר r Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink
dialectical
Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink
שׁ sh š Template:IPAslink
שׂ s ś
תּ t t
ת
Notes

Template:Note labelTemplate:Note labelTemplate:Note labelTemplate:Note labelA1Template:Note2Template:Note3Template:Note4Template:NoteIn transliterations of modern Israeli Hebrew, initial and final ע (in regular transliteration), silent or initial א, and silent ה are not transliterated. To the eye of readers orientating themselves on Latin (or similar) alphabets, these letters might seem to be transliterated as vowel letters; however, these are in fact transliterations of the vowel diacritics – niqqud (or are representations of the spoken vowels). E.g., in אִם ("if", [ʔim]), אֵם ("mother", [ʔe̞m]) and אֹם ("nut", [ʔo̞m]), the letter א always represents the same consonant: Template:IPAblink (glottal stop), whereas the vowels /i/, /e/ and /o/ respectively represent the spoken vowel, whether it is orthographically denoted by diacritics or not. Since the Academy of the Hebrew Language ascertains that א in initial position is not transliterated, the symbol for the glottal stop  ʾ  is omitted from the transliteration, and only the subsequent vowels are transliterated (whether or not their corresponding vowel diacritics appeared in the text being transliterated), resulting in "im", "em" and "om", respectively.

Template:Note labelTemplate:Note labelTemplate:Note labelB1Template:Note2Template:Note3Template:NoteThe diacritic geresh – "׳" – is used with some other letters as well (ד׳, ח׳, ט׳, ע׳, ר׳, ת׳, see geresh), but only to transliterate from other languages to Hebrew – never to spell Hebrew words; therefore they were not included in this table (correctly translating a Hebrew text with these letters would require using the spelling in the language from which the transliteration to Hebrew was originally made). The non-standard "ו׳" and "וו" [e1] are sometimes used to represent Template:IPAslink, which like Template:IPAslink, Template:IPAslink and Template:IPAslink appears in Hebrew slang and loanwords; see Hebrew Vav for the orthographic variants of vav.

Template:Note labelTemplate:Note labelC1Template:Note2Template:NoteThe Sound Template:IPAslink (as "ch" in loch) is often transcribed "ch", inconsistently with the guidelines specified by the Academy of the Hebrew Language: חם /χam/ → "cham"; סכך /sχaχ/ → "schach".

Template:Note labelDTemplate:NoteAlthough the Bible does include a single occurrence of a final pe with a dagesh (Book of Proverbs 30, 6: "Template:Hebrew"), in modern Hebrew Template:IPAslink is always represented by pe in its regular, not final, form "פ", even when in final word position, which occurs with loanwords (e.g. שׁוֹפּ /ʃop/ "shop"), foreign names (e.g. פִילִיפּ /ˈfilip/ "Philip") and some slang (e.g. חָרַפּ /χaˈrap/ "slept deeply").

Pronunciation

Template:Further

The descriptions that follow are based on the pronunciation of modern standard Israeli Hebrew. For a concise summary, see the article International Phonetic Alphabet for Hebrew. For further information on regional and historical variations in pronunciation, see Hebrew phonology.

Letters א בּ ב ג גּ ג׳ ד דּ ד׳ ה ו וּ וֹ וו , ו׳

(non-standard)
[e2]
ז ז׳ ח ט י
IPA Template:IPAblink, Template:IPAlink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink [h~ʔ], Template:IPAlink Template:IPAblink [u] [o̞] Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink~Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink
Letters ‏ִי כּ ךּ

<ref name="kaf_sofit"/>
ך כ ל ם מ ן נ ס ע פּ פ ף ץ צ ץ׳ צ׳ ק ר שׁ שׂ תּ ת ת׳
IPA Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink~Template:IPAblink, Template:IPAlink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink Template:IPAblink

Shin and sin

Template:Further

Shin and sin are represented by the same letter, Template:Hebrew, but are two separate phonemes. They are not mutually allophonic. When vowel diacritics are used, the two phonemes are differentiated with a shin-dot or sin-dot; the shin-dot is above the upper-right side of the letter, and the sin-dot is above the upper-left side of the letter.

Symbol Name Transliteration IPA Example
שׂ (left dot) sin s /s/ sour
שׁ (right dot) shin sh /ʃ/ shop

Historically, left-dot-sin, corresponds to Proto-Semitic *Template:Transl, which in biblical-Judaic-Hebrew corresponded to a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative /ɬ/, as is evident in Greek transliteration of Hebrew words such as Balsam (בֹּשֶׂם) (the ls - 'שׂ') as is evident in the Targum OnkelosTemplate:Citation needed. Rendering of proto-semitic *Template:Transl as /ɬ/, is still evident in the Soqotri languageTemplate:Citation needed.

Dagesh

See Also Dagesh

Historically, the consonants ב bet,beis, ג gimel, ד dalet, כ kaf,kof, פ pe,pey, and ת tav each had two sounds: one hard (plosive), and one soft (fricative), depending on the position of the letter and other factors. When vowel diacritics are used, the hard sounds are indicated by a central dot called dagesh (דגש), while the soft sounds lack a dagesh. In modern Hebrew, however, the dagesh only changes the pronunciation of ב bet, כ kaf, and פ pe. The differences are as follows:

With dagesh Without dagesh
Symbol Name Transliteration IPA Example Symbol Name Transliteration IPA Example
בּ bet b /b/ bun ב vet v /v/ van
כּ ךּ kaph k /k/ kangaroo כ ך khaph kh/ch/k /χ/ loch
פּ pe p /p/ pass פ ף phe ph/f /f/ find

In other dialects (mainly liturgical) there are variations from this pattern.

  • In some Sephardi and Mizrahi dialects, bet without dagesh is pronounced [b], like bet with dagesh
  • In Syrian and Yemenite Hebrew, gimel without dagesh is pronounced [ɣ]
  • In Yemenite Hebrew, and in the Iraqi pronunciation of the word "Adonai", dalet without dagesh is pronounced [ð] as in "these"
  • In Ashkenazi Hebrew, tav without dagesh is pronounced [s] as in "silk"
  • In Iraqi and Yemenite Hebrew, and formerly in some other dialects, tav without dagesh is pronounced [θ] is in "thick"

Identical pronunciation

In Israel's general population, many consonants have the same pronunciation. They are:

Letters Transliteration Pronunciation (IPA)
א
Alef*
ע
Ayin*
- (vowel)
ב
Bet (without dagesh)
ו
Vav
v /v/
ח
Het
כ
Kaf (without dagesh)
kh/ch/h /χ/
ט
Tet
Tav
t /t/
כּ
Kaf (with dagesh)
ק
Qof
k /k/
ס
Samekh
שׂ
Sin (with left dot)
s /s/
צ
Tsadi*
תס
Tav-Samekh*
and תשׂ
Tav-Sin*
ts/tz /ts/

* Varyingly

Ancient Hebrew pronunciation

Further Biblical Hebrew

Some of the variations in sound mentioned above are due to a systematic feature of Ancient Hebrew. The six consonants /b ɡ d k p t/ were pronounced differently depending on their position. These letters were also called BeGeD KePHeT letters (Template:Pron-en in English). (The full details are very complex; this summary omits some points.) They were pronounced as stops b ɡ d k p t at the beginning of a syllable, or when doubled. They were pronounced as fricatives v ɣ ð x f θ when preceded by a vowel (commonly indicated with a macron, ḇ ḡ ḏ ḵ p̄ ṯ). The stop and double pronunciations were indicated by the dagesh. In Modern Hebrew the sounds and have reverted to [d] and [ɡ], respectively, and has become [t], so only the remaining three consonants /b k p/ show variation. ר "reish" may have also been a "doubled" letter, making the list BeGeD KePoReS. (Sefer Yetzirah, 4:1)

Vowels

Matres lectionis

See Also Mater lectionis

א aleph, ה he, ו vav and י yod are letters that can sometimes indicate a vowel instead of a consonant (which would be, respectively, /ʔ/, /h/, /v/ and /j/). When they do, ו and י are considered to constitute part of the vowel designation in combination with a niqqud symbol – a vowel diacritic (whether or not the diacritic is marked), whereas א and ה are considered to be mute, their role being purely indicative of the non-marked vowel.

LetterName
of letter
Consonant
indicated
when letter
consonantal
Vowel
designation
Name of
vowel designation
Indicated
Vowel
א aleph /ʔ/ ê, ệ, ậ, â, ô
ה he /h/ ê, ệ, ậ, â, ô
ו vav /v/ וֹ ḥolám malé ô
וּ shurúq û
י yud /j/ ‏ִי ḥiríq malé î
‏ֵי tseré malé ê, ệ

Vowel points

See Also Niqqud

Niqqud is the system of dots that help determine vowels and consonants. In Hebrew, all forms of niqqud are often omitted in writing, except for children's books, prayer books, poetry, foreign words, and words which would be ambiguous to pronounce. Israeli Hebrew has five vowel phonemes, /i e a o u/, but many more written symbols for them:

Name Symbol Israeli Hebrew
IPA Transliteration English
example
Hiriq Image:Hebrew Hiriq.svg i see
Zeire Image:Hebrew Zeire.svg ([e̞j] with
succeeding yod)
e, (ei with
succeeding yod)
men
Segol Image:Hebrew Segol.svg Template:IPAblink e men
Patach Image:Hebrew Patah.svg Template:IPAblink a car
Kamatz Image:Hebrew Qamaz.svg Template:IPAblink, (or Template:IPAblink) a, (or o) car
Holam Image:Hebrew Minus Holam.svg Template:IPAblink o cone
Shuruk Image:Hebrew Equal Shuruk.svg Template:IPAblink u tube
Kubutz Image:Hebrew Backslash Qubuz.svg Template:IPAblink u tube

Note 1: The symbol "O" represents whatever Hebrew letter is used.
Note 2: The pronunciation of zeire and sometimes segol - with or without the letter yod - is sometimes ei in Modern Hebrew. This is not correct in the normative pronunciation and not consistent in the spoken language.[]
Note 3: The dagesh, mappiq, and shuruk have different functions, even though they look the same.
Note 4: The letter ו (vav) is used since it can only be represented by that letter.

Sh'va

See Also Sh'va By adding two vertical dots (called Sh'va) underneath the letter, the vowel is made very short.

Name Symbol Israeli Hebrew
IPA Transliteration English
example
Shva Image:Tilde Schwa.svg or apostrophe, e,
or nothing
silent
Reduced Segol Image:Hataf Segol.svg e men
Reduced Patach Image:Hataf Patah.svg a cup
Reduced Kamatz Image:Hataf Qamaz.svg o cone

Comparison table

Vowel comparison table
Vowel Length
(phonetically not manifested in Israeli Hebrew)
IPA Transliteration English
example
Long Short Very Short
Template:Hebrew Template:Hebrew Template:Hebrew a spa
Template:Hebrew Template:Hebrew Template:Hebrew e temp
Template:Hebrew Template:Hebrew Template:Hebrew o cone
Template:Hebrew Template:Hebrew n/a u u tube
Template:Hebrew Template:Hebrew i i ski
Note I: By adding two vertical dots (sh'va) Template:Hebrew
the vowel is made very short.
Note II: The short o and long a have the same niqqud.
Note III: The short o is usually promoted to a long o
in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation
Note IV: The short u is usually promoted to a long u
in Israeli writing for the sake of disambiguation

Gershayim

See Also Gershayim

The symbol Template:Hebrew is called a gershayim and is a punctuation mark used in the Hebrew language to denote acronyms. It is written before the last letter in the acronym. Gershayim is also the name of a note of cantillation in the reading of the Torah, printed above the accented letter.

Sounds represented with diacritic geresh

See Also Hebraization of English

The sounds [t͡ʃ], [d͡ʒ], [ʒ], written "צ׳", "ג׳", "ז׳", and [w], non-standardly sometimes transliterated וו or ו׳, are often found in slang and loanwords that are part of the everyday Hebrew colloquial vocabulary. The apostrophe-looking symbol after the Hebrew letter modifies the pronunciation of the letter and is called a geresh. (As mentioned above, while still done, using ו׳ to represent [w] is non-standard; standard spelling rules allow no usage of ו׳ whatsoever).

Hebrew slang and loanwords
Name Symbol IPA Transliteration Example
Gimel with a geresh ג׳ [d͡ʒ] ǧ[] ǧáḥnun [ˈd͡ʒaχnun] גָ׳חְנוּן
Zayin with a geresh ז׳ [ʒ] ž[] koláž [koˈlaʒ] קוֹלָאז׳
Tsadi with a geresh צ׳ [t͡ʃ] č[] čupár (treat) [t͡ʃuˈpar] צ׳וּפָּר
Vav with a geresh
or double Vav
וו or ו׳(non standard) [w] w awánta (boastful act) [aˈwanta] עָוָנְטָה

The pronunciation of the following letters can also be modified with the geresh diacritic, the represented sounds are however foreign to Hebrew phonology, i.e., these symbols only represent sounds in foreign words or names when transliterated with the Hebrew alphabet, and never loanwords.

Transliteration of non-native sounds
Name Symbol IPA Arabic letter Example Comment
Dalet with a geresh ד׳ [ð] Ḏāl (ذ)
Voiced th
Dhu al-Hijjah (ذو الحجة)‎ ד׳ו אל-חיג׳ה * Also used for English voiced th
* Often a simple ד is written.
Tav with a geresh ת׳ [θ] Ṯāʾ (ﺙ)
Voiceless th
Thurston ת׳רסטון
Ḥet with a geresh ח׳ [χ] Ḫāʼ (خ) Sheikh (شيخ)‎ שייח׳ * Unlike the other sounds in this table, the sound [χ] represented by ח׳ is indeed a native sound in Hebrew; the geresh is however used only when transliteration must distinguish between [χ] and [ħ], in which case ח׳ transliterates the former and ח the latter, whereas in everyday usage ח without geresh is pronounced [ħ] only dialectically but [χ] commonly.
Resh with a geresh ר׳ [ʁ] Ġayn (غ) Ghajar ר׳ג׳ר Sometimes an Ayin with a geresh (ע׳) is used to transliterate غ – inconsistently with the guidelines specified by the Academy of the Hebrew Language

A geresh is also used to denote initialisms and to denote a Hebrew numeral. Geresh also is the name of one of the notes of cantillation in the reading of the Torah, but its appearance and function is different.

In Jewish faith

The letters of the Hebrew alphabet have played varied roles in Jewish religious literature over the centuries, primarily in mystical texts. Some sources in classical rabbinical literature seem to acknowledge the historical provenence of the currently used Hebrew alphabet and deal with them as a mundane subject (the Jerusalem Talmud, for example, records that "the Israelites took for themselves square calligraphy", and that the letters "came with the Israelites from Ashur [Assyria]"<ref>Jerusalem Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 21b</ref>); others attribute mystical significance to the letters, connecting them with the process of creation or the redemption. In mystical conceptions, the alphabet is considered eternal, pre-existent to the Earth, and the letters themselves are seen as having holiness and power, sometimes to such an extent that several stories from the Talmud illustrate the idea that they cannot be destroyed.<ref>Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Pesach 87b, Avodah Zarah 18a</ref>

The idea of the letters' creative power finds its greatest vehicle in the Sefer Yezirah, or Book of Creation, a mystical text of uncertain origin which describes a story of creation highly divergent from that in the Book of Genesis, largely through exposition on the powers of the letters of the alphabet. The supposed creative powers of the letters are also referenced in the Talmud and Zohar.<ref>Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot 55c</ref><ref>Zohar 1:3; 2:152</ref>

Image:Tefillin.JPG
The four-pronged Shin.

Another book, the 13th-century Kabbalistic text Sefer ha-Temunah, holds that a single letter of unknown pronunciation, held by some to be the four-pronged shin on one side of the teffilin box, is missing from the current alphabet. The world's flaws, the book teaches, are related to the absence of this letter, the eventual revelation of which will repair the universe.<ref name="ReferenceA">The Book of Letters. Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing, Woodstock. 1990</ref> Another example of messianic significance attached to the letters is the teaching of Rabbi Eliezer that the five letters of the alphabet with final forms hold the "secret of redemption".<ref name="ReferenceA"/>

In addition, the letters occasionally feature in aggadic portions of non-mystical rabbinic literature. In such aggada the letters are often given anthropomorphic qualities and depicted as speaking to God. Commonly their shapes are used in parables to illustrate points of ethics or theology. An example from the Babylonian Talmud (a parable intended to discourage speculation about the universe before creation):

Why does the story of creation begin with bet?... In the same manner that the letter bet is closed on all sides and only open in front, similarly you are not permitted to inquire into what is before or what was behind, but only from the actual time of Creation. Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Hagigah, 77c.

Extensive instructions about the proper methods of forming the letters are found in Mishnat Soferim, within Mishna Berura of Yisrael Meir Kagan.

Unicode and HTML

See Also Unicode and HTML for the Hebrew alphabet

The Unicode Hebrew block extends from U+0590 to U+05FF and from U+FB1D to U+FB40. It includes letters, ligatures, combining diacritical marks (niqqud and cantillation marks) and punctuation. The Numeric Character References is included for HTML. These can be used in many markup languages, and they are often used in Wiki to create the Hebrew glyphs compatible with the majority of web browsers.

See also

Template:Hebrew alphabet

Notes

aTemplate:Note"Aleph-bet" is commonly written in Israeli Hebrew without the maqaph (מקף, hyphen), אלפבית עברי, as opposed to with the hyphen, אלף־בית עברי.

bTemplate:NoteThe Arabic letters have, in principle (as six of the primary letters can have only two variants), four forms, according to their place in the word. The same goes with the Mandaic ones, except for three of the 22 letters, which have only one form. For more information, see Arabic alphabet and Mandaic alphabet.

cTemplate:NoteIn forms of Hebrew older than Modern Hebrew, כ״ף, בי״ת and פ״א can only be read b, k and p, respectively, at the beginning of a word, while they will have the sole value of v, kh and ph in a sofit (final) position, with few exceptions.<ref name="kaf_sofit"/> In medial positions, both pronunciations are possible. In Modern Hebrew this restriction is not absolute, e.g. פִיזִיקַאי /fiziˈkaj/ and never /piziˈkaj/ (= "physicist"), סְנוֹבּ /snob/ and never /snov/ (= "snob"). A dagesh may be inserted to unambiguously denote the plosive variant: בּ = /b/, כּ = /k/, פּ =/p/; similarly (though today very rare in Hebrew and common only in Yiddish) a rafé placed above the letter unambiguously denotes the fricative variant: בֿ = /v/, כֿ = /χ/ and פֿ = /f/.

dTemplate:NoteHowever, וו (two separate vavs), used in Ktiv male, is to be distinguished from the Yiddish ligature װ (also two vavs but together as one character).

e1Template:Notee2Template:Notee3Template:Notee4Template:Notee5Template:NoteThe Academy of the Hebrew Language states that both Template:IPAblink and Template:IPAblink be indistinguishably represented in Hebrew using the letter Vav.<ref name="trans-into-heb">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} issued by the Academy of the Hebrew Language.</ref> Sometimes the Vav is indeed doubled, however not to denote [w] as opposed to [v] but rather, when spelling without niqqud, to denote the phoneme /v/ at a non-initial and non-final position in the word, whereas a single Vav at a non-initial and non-final position in the word in spelling without niqqud denotes one of the phonemes /u/ or /o/. To pronounce foreign words and loanwords containing the sound Template:IPAblink, Hebrew readers must therefore rely on former knowledge and context, see also pronunciation of Hebrew Vav.

References

Bibliography

External links

Keyboards


New book available with irrefutable evidence for the reading in the TR and KJV.
Revelation 16:5 book
Revelation 16:5 and the Triadic Declaration - A defense of the reading of “shalt be” in the Authorized Version

List of New Testament Papyri

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List of New Testament minuscules

1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20 · 21 · 22 · 23 · 24 · 25 · 26 · 27 · 28 · 29 · 30 · 31 · 32 · 33 · 34 · 35 · 36 · 37 · 38 · 39 · 40 · 41 · 42 · 43 · 44 · 45 · 46 · 47 · 48 · 49 · 50 · 51 · 52 · 53 · 54 · 55 · 56 · 57 · 58 · 59 · 60 · 61 · 62 · 63 · 64 · 65 · 66 · 67 · 68 · 69 · 70 · 71 · 72 · 73 · 74 · 75 · 76 · 77 · 78 · 79 · 80 · 81 · 82 · 83 · 84 · 85 · 86 · 87 · 88 · 89 · 90 · 91 · 92 · 93 · 94 · 95 · 96 · 97 · 98 · 99 · 100 · 101 · 102 · 103 · 104 · 105 · 106 · 107 · 108 · 109 · 110 · 111 · 112 · 113 · 114 · 115 · 116 · 117 · 118 · 119 · 120 · 121 · 122 · 123 · 124 · 125 · 126 · 127 · 128 · 129 · 130 · 131 · 132 · 133 · 134 · 135 · 136 · 137 · 138 · 139 · 140 · 141 · 142 · 143 · 144 · 145 · 146 · 147 · 148 · 149 · 150 · 151 · 152 · 153 · 154 · 155 · 156 · 157 · 158 · 159 · 160 · 161 · 162 · 163 · 164 · 165 · 166 · 167 · 168 · 169 · 170 · 171 · 172 · 173 · 174 · 175 · 176 · 177 · 178 · 179 · 180 · 181 · 182 · 183 · 184 · 185 · 186 · 187 · 188 · 189 · 190 · 191 · 192 · 193 · 194 · 195 · 196 · 197 · 198 · 199 · 200 · 201 · 202 · 203 · 204 · 205 · 206 · 207 · 208 · 209 · 210 · 211 · 212 · 213 · 214 · 215 · 216 · 217 · 218 · 219 · 220 · 221 · 222 · 223 · 224 · 225 · 226 · 227 · 228 · 229 · 230 · 231 · 232 · 233 · 234 · 235 · 236 · 237 · 238 · 239 · 240 · 241 · 242 · 243 · 244 · 245 · 246 · 247 · 248 · 249 · 250 · 251 · 252 · 253 · 254 · 255 · 256 · 257 · 258 · 259 · 260 · 261 · 262 · 263 · 264 · 265 · 266 · 267 · 268 · 269 · 270 · 271 · 272 · 273 · 274 · 275 · 276 · 277 · 278 · 279 · 280 · 281 · 282 · 283 · 284 · 285 · 286 · 287 · 288 · 289 · 290 · 291 · 292 · 293 · 294 · 295 · 296 · 297 · 298 · 299 · 300 · 301 · 302 · 303 · 304 · 305 · 306 · 307 · 308 · 309 · 310 · 311 · 312 · 313 · 314 · 315 · 316 · 317 · 318 · 319 · 320 · 321 · 322 · 323 · 324 · 325 · 326 · 327 · 328 · 329 · 330 · 331 · 332 · 333 · 334 · 335 · 336 · 337 · 338 · 339 · 340 · 341 · 342 · 343 · 344 · 345 · 346 · 347 · 348 · 349 · 350 · 351 · 352 · 353 · 354 · 355 · 356 · 357 · 358 · 359 · 360 · 361 · 362 · 363 · 364 · 365 · 366 · 367 · 368 · 369 · 370 · 371 · 372 · 373 · 374 · 375 · 376 · 377 · 378 · 379 · 380 · 381 · 382 · 383 · 384 · 385 · 386 · 387 · 388 · 389 · 390 · 391 · 392 · 393 · 394 · 395 · 396 · 397 · 398 · 399 · 400 · 401 · 402 · 403 · 404 · 405 · 406 · 407 · 408 · 409 · 410 · 411 · 412 · 413 · 414 · 415 · 416 · 417 · 418 · 419 · 420 · 421 · 422 · 423 · 424 · 425 · 426 · 427 · 428 · 429 · 430 · 431 · 432 · 433 · 434 · 435 · 436 · 437 · 438 · 439 · 440 · 441 · 442 · 443 · 444 · 445 · 446 · 447 · 448 · 449 · 450 · 451 · 452 · 453 · 454 · 455 · 456 · 457 · 458 · 459 · 460 · 461 · 462 · 463 · 464 · 465 · 466 · 467 · 468 · 469 · 470 · 471 · 472 · 473 · 474 · 475 · 476 · 477 · 478 · 479 · 480 · 481 · 482 · 483 · 484 · 485 · 486 · 487 · 488 · 489 · 490 · 491 · 492 · 493 · 494 · 495 · 496 · 497 · 498 · 499 · 500 · 501 · 502 · 503 · 504 · 505 · 506 · 507 · 543 · 565 · 566 · 579 · 585 · 614 · 639 · 653 · 654 · 655 · 656 · 657 · 658 · 659 · 660 · 661 · 669 · 676 · 685 · 700 · 798 · 823 · 824 · 825 · 826 · 827 · 828 · 829 · 830 · 831 · 876 · 891 · 892 · 893 · 1071 · 1143 · 1152 · 1241 · 1253 · 1423 · 1424 · 1432 · 1582 · 1739 · 1780 · 1813 · 1834 · 2053 · 2059 · 2060 · 2061 · 2062 · 2174 · 2268 · 2344 · 2423 · 2427 · 2437 · 2444 · 2445 · 2446 · 2460 · 2464 · 2491 · 2495 · 2612 · 2613 · 2614 · 2615 · 2616 · 2641 · 2754 · 2755 · 2756 · 2757 · 2766 · 2767 · 2768 · 2793 · 2802 · 2803 · 2804 · 2805 · 2806 · 2807 · 2808 · 2809 · 2810 · 2811 · 2812 · 2813 · 2814 · 2815 · 2816 · 2817 · 2818 · 2819 · 2820 · 2821 · 2855 · 2856 · 2857 · 2858 · 2859 · 2860 · 2861 · 2862 · 2863 · 2881 · 2882 ·


List of New Testament uncials

01 · 02 · 03 · 04 · 05 · 06 · 07 · 08 · 09 · 010 · 011 · 012 · 013 · 014 · 015 · 016 · 017 · 018 · 019 · 020 · 021 · 022 · 023 · 024 · 025 · 026 · 027 · 028 · 029 · 030 · 031 · 032 · 033 · 034 · 035 · 036 · 037 · 038 · 039 · 040 · 041 · 042 · 043 · 044 · 045 · 046 · 047 · 048 · 049 · 050 · 051 · 052 · 053 · 054 · 055 · 056 · 057 · 058 · 059 · 060 · 061 · 062 · 063 · 064 · 065 · 066 · 067 · 068 · 069 · 070 · 071 · 072 · 073 · 074 · 075 · 076 · 077 · 078 · 079 · 080 · 081 · 082 · 083 · 084 · 085 · 086 · 087 · 088 · 089 · 090 · 091 · 092 · 093 · 094 · 095 · 096 · 097 · 098 · 099 · 0100 · 0101 · 0102 · 0103 · 0104 · 0105 · 0106 · 0107 · 0108 · 0109 · 0110 · 0111 · 0112 · 0113 · 0114 · 0115 · 0116 · 0117 · 0118 · 0119 · 0120 · 0121 · 0122 · 0123 · 0124 · 0125 · 0126 · 0127 · 0128 · 0129 · 0130 · 0131 · 0132 · 0134 · 0135 · 0136 · 0137 · 0138 · 0139 · 0140 · 0141 · 0142 · 0143 · 0144 · 0145 · 0146 · 0147 · 0148 · 0149 · 0150 · 0151 · 0152 · 0153 · 0154 · 0155 · 0156 · 0157 · 0158 · 0159 · 0160 · 0161 · 0162 · 0163 · 0164 · 0165 · 0166 · 0167 · 0168 · 0169 · 0170 · 0171 · 0172 · 0173 · 0174 · 0175 · 0176 · 0177 · 0178 · 0179 · 0180 · 0181 · 0182 · 0183 · 0184 · 0185 · 0186 · 0187 · 0188 · 0189 · 0190 · 0191 · 0192 · 0193 · 0194 · 0195 · 0196 · 0197 · 0198 · 0199 · 0200 · 0201 · 0202 · 0203 · 0204 · 0205 · 0206 · 0207 · 0208 · 0209 · 0210 · 0211 · 0212 · 0213 · 0214 · 0215 · 0216 · 0217 · 0218 · 0219 · 0220 · 0221 · 0222 · 0223 · 0224 · 0225 · 0226 · 0227 · 0228 · 0229 · 0230 · 0231 · 0232 · 0234 · 0235 · 0236 · 0237 · 0238 · 0239 · 0240 · 0241 · 0242 · 0243 · 0244 · 0245 · 0246 · 0247 · 0248 · 0249 · 0250 · 0251 · 0252 · 0253 · 0254 · 0255 · 0256 · 0257 · 0258 · 0259 · 0260 · 0261 · 0262 · 0263 · 0264 · 0265 · 0266 · 0267 · 0268 · 0269 · 0270 · 0271 · 0272 · 0273 · 0274 · 0275 · 0276 · 0277 · 0278 · 0279 · 0280 · 0281 · 0282 · 0283 · 0284 · 0285 · 0286 · 0287 · 0288 · 0289 · 0290 · 0291 · 0292 · 0293 · 0294 · 0295 · 0296 · 0297 · 0298 · 0299 · 0300 · 0301 · 0302 · 0303 · 0304 · 0305 · 0306 · 0307 · 0308 · 0309 · 0310 · 0311 · 0312 · 0313 · 0314 · 0315 · 0316 · 0317 · 0318 · 0319 · 0320 · 0321 · 0322 · 0323 ·


List of New Testament lectionaries

1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20 · 21 · 22 · 23 · 24 · 25 · 25b · 26 · 27 · 28 · 29 · 30 · 31 · 32 · 33 · 34 · 35 · 36 · 37 · 38 · 39 · 40 · 41 · 42 · 43 · 44 · 45 · 46 · 47 · 48 · 49 · 50 · 51 · 52 · 53 · 54 · 55 · 56 · 57 · 58 · 59 · 60 · 61 · 62 · 63 · 64 · 65 · 66 · 67 · 68 · 69 · 70 · 71 · 72 · 73 · 74 · 75 · 76 · 77 · 78 · 79 · 80 · 81 · 82 · 83 · 84 · 85 · 86 · 87 · 88 · 89 · 90 · 91 · 92 · 93 · 94 · 95 · 96 · 97 · 98 · 99 · 100 · 101 · 102 · 103 · 104 · 105 · 106 · 107 · 108 · 109 · 110 · 111 · 112 · 113 · 114 · 115 · 116 · 117 · 118 · 119 · 120 · 121 · 122 · 123 · 124 · 125 · 126 · 127 · 128 · 129 · 130 · 131 · 132 · 133 · 134 · 135 · 136 · 137 · 138 · 139 · 140 · 141 · 142 · 143 · 144 · 145 · 146 · 147 · 148 · 149 · 150 · 151 · 152 · 153 · 154 · 155 · 156 · 157 · 158 · 159 · 160 · 161 · 162 · 163 · 164 · 165 · 166 · 167 · 168 · 169 · 170 · 171 · 172 · 173 · 174 · 175 · 176 · 177 · 178 · 179 · 180 · 181 · 182 · 183 · 184 · 185 · 186 · 187 · 188 · 189 · 190 · 191 · 192 · 193 · 194 · 195 · 196 · 197 · 198 · 199 · 200 · 201 · 202 · 203 · 204 · 205 · 206a · 206b · 207 · 208 · 209 · 210 · 211 · 212 · 213 · 214 · 215 · 216 · 217 · 218 · 219 · 220 · 221 · 222 · 223 · 224 · 225 · 226 · 227 · 228 · 229 · 230 · 231 · 232 · 233 · 234 · 235 · 236 · 237 · 238 · 239 · 240 · 241 · 242 · 243 · 244 · 245 · 246 · 247 · 248 · 249 · 250 · 251 · 252 · 253 · 254 · 255 · 256 · 257 · 258 · 259 · 260 · 261 · 262 · 263 · 264 · 265 · 266 · 267 · 268 · 269 · 270 · 271 · 272 · 273 · 274 · 275 · 276 · 277 · 278 · 279 · 280 · 281 · 282 · 283 · 284 · 285 · 286 · 287 · 288 · 289 · 290 · 291 · 292 · 293 · 294 · 295 · 296 · 297 · 298 · 299 · 300 · 301 · 302 · 303 · 304 · 305 · 306 · 307 · 308 · 309 · 310 · 311 · 312 · 313 · 314 · 315 · 316 · 317 · 318 · 319 · 320 · 321 · 322 · 323 · 324 · 325 · 326 · 327 · 328 · 329 · 330 · 331 · 332 · 368 · 449 · 451 · 501 · 502 · 542 · 560 · 561 · 562 · 563 · 564 · 648 · 649 · 809 · 965 · 1033 · 1358 · 1386 · 1491 · 1423 · 1561 · 1575 · 1598 · 1599 · 1602 · 1604 · 1614 · 1619 · 1623 · 1637 · 1681 · 1682 · 1683 · 1684 · 1685 · 1686 · 1691 · 1813 · 1839 · 1965 · 1966 · 1967 · 2005 · 2137 · 2138 · 2139 · 2140 · 2141 · 2142 · 2143 · 2144 · 2145 · 2164 · 2208 · 2210 · 2211 · 2260 · 2261 · 2263 · 2264 · 2265 · 2266 · 2267 · 2307 · 2321 · 2352 · 2404 · 2405 · 2406 · 2411 · 2412 ·


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