Codex Boernerianus

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Codex Boernerianus, designated by Gp or 012 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), α 1028 (von Soden), is a small New Testament codex, measuring 25 x 18 cm, written in one column per page, 20 lines per page. Dated paleographically to the 9th century.<ref name=Aland>Kurt Aland, and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction To The Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1995, p. 110. </ref> The name of the codex derives from Boerner, to whom it once belonged.

>== Description ==

The manuscript contains the text of the Pauline epistles (but does not contain Hebrews) on 99 vellum leaves. The main text is in Greek with an interlinear Latin translation inserted above the Greek text (in the same manner like Codex Sangallensis 48).

The text of the codex contains six lacunae (Romans 1:1-4, 2:17-24, 1 Cor. 3:8-16, 6:7-14, Col. 2:1-8, Philem. 21-25). Quotations from the Old Testament are marked in left-hand margin by inverted comma (>), and Latin notation identifies a quotation (f.e. Iesaia). Capital letters follow regular in stichometric frequency. It means codex G was copied from manuscript arranged in στίχοι. The codex sometimes uses minuscule letters: α, κ, ρ (of the same size as uncials). It has not Spiritus asper, Spiritus lenis and accents.<ref name = Gregory/>

The Latin text is written in minuscule letters. The shape of Latin letters: r, s, t is characteristic of Anglo-Saxon alphabet.

Codex does not use phrase ἐν Ῥώμῃ (in Rome). In Rom 1:7 this phrase was replaced into ἐν ἀγαπῃ (Latin text - in caritate et dilectione), and in 1:15 the phrase is omitted (in both text Greek and Latin).

After the end of Philemon stands the title Προς Λαουδακησας αρχεται επιστολη (with interlinear Latin ad Laudicenses incipit epistola), but an apocryphal epistle is lost.<ref name = Metzger>Bruce M. Metzger, Bart D. Ehrman, The Text Of The New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 75-76. </ref>

The section 1 Cor 14:34-35 is placed after 1 Cor 14:40, just like other manuscripts of the Western text-type (Claromontanus, Augiensis, 88, it<sup>d, g</sup>, and some manuscripts of Vulgate.<ref>NA26, p. 466. </ref><ref>Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament ([[Deutsche Biblegesellschaft: Stuttgart, 2001), pp. 499-500. </ref>

The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Western text-type. Aland placed it in Category III.<ref name=Aland/>

The Latin text has some affinity with Liber Comicus.<ref>A. H. McNeile, An Introduction to the Study of the New Testament, revised by C. S. C. Williams, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1955, p. 399. </ref>



Contents

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The Old Irish Poem in the Codex Boernerianus

On folio 23 verso at the footnote written Irish verse which refer to making a pilgrimage to Rome:

Téicht do róim [téicht do róim]
Mór saido becic torbai
Inrí chondaigi hifoss
Manimbera latt ni fog bai.
Mór báis mor baile
Mór coll ceille mór mise
Olais aurchenn teicht dóecaib
Beith fó étoil maic Maire.

thumb|right|240px|Below biblical text Irish verse (three lines) Scrivener's translation:

To come to Rome, to come to Rome,
Much of trouble, little of profit,
The thing thou seekest here,
If thou bring not with thee, thou
findest not.
Great folly, great madness,
Great ruin of sense, great insanity,
Since thou has set out for death,
That thou shouldest be in disobedience
to the Son of Mary.<ref>F. H. A. Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, 4th ed. (George Bell & Sons: London 1894), Vol. 1, p. 180. </ref>

E. Windisch proposed different translation of that verse:

„Nach Rom gehen
Viel Mühe, wenig Nutzen!
Der König, den du hienieden suchst,
Wenn du ihm mich mitbringst, findest du (ihn) nicht.
Groß die Torheit, groß der Wahnsinn!
Groß die Verderbnis des Sinns, groß der Irrsinn!
Weil in den Tod gehen sicher bevorsteht,
Soll es sein unter ... von Mariens Sohn!“<ref>A. Reichardt, Introduction Der Codex Boernerianus. Der Briefe des Apostels Paulus, Verlag von Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig 1909, S. 12. </ref>

Robert Relyea translated it into English in that way:

According to Rome
Great effort, little benefit!
The king you are seeking
If you do not brign him, you can find (him).
Great folly, great madness,
The wholesale corruption of meaning, great madness!
Because going will bring death,
Should it be under... Son of Mary!<ref>E. Windisch, Das altirische Gedicht im Codex Boernerianus, in the "Berichten über die Verhandlungen der Kgl. Sächs Gesellschaft der Wiss. Zu Leipzig philos.-hist.-Klasse", Vol 421890, p. 83. See also: Alexander Reichhart, Introduction, translated by Robert Relyea.</ref>

Metzger in his book quoted translation of Scrivener.<ref>B. M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1981, p. 104. </ref> This seems to have been written by a disappointed pilgrim. Irish language was not the first language for the author of this vers.

History

The codex was probably written by an Irish monk in the Abbey of St. Gall, Switzerland between 850-900 A.D. Kuster was the first to recognize the 9th century date of Codex Boernerianus.<ref>Alexander Reichardt, Indtoruction, translated by Robert Relyea. </ref> The evidence for this date includes the style of the script, the smaller uncial letters in Greek, the Latin interlinear written in Anglo-Saxon minuscule, and the separation of words.<ref> Gardthausen, Griechische Paläographie (Greek Paleography). Leipzig 1879. p. 271, 428 and 166; see also. H. Marsh, Comments. . to J. D. Michaelis' Introduction. I. p. 263</ref>

In 1670 it was in the hands of P. Junius at Leiden. The codex got its name from its first German owner, University of Leipzig professor Boerner, who bought it in Holland in the year 1705.<ref name = Gregory>C. R. Gregory, „Textkritik des Neuen Testaments“, Leipzig 1900, vol. 1, p. 112. </ref> It was collated by Kuster, described in the preface to his edition of Mill's Greek New Testament. The manuscript was designated by symbol G in the second part of Wettstein's New Testament.<ref>Alexander Chalmers, The General biographical dictionary (London 1812), Vol. 4, pp. 508-509. </ref> The text of the codex was published by Matthaei, at Meissen, in Saxony, in 1791, and supposed by him to have been written between the 8th and 12th centuries.<ref>Ch. F. Matthaei, XIII epistolarum Pauli codex Graecus cum versione latine veteri vulgo Antehieronymiana olim Boernerianus nunc bibliothecae electoralis Dresdensis, Meissen, 1791.</ref> Rettig thought that Codex Sangallensis is a part of the same boo as the Codex Boernerianus.<ref>H. C. M. Rettig, Antiquissimus quattor evangeliorum canonicorum Codex Sangallensis Graeco-Latinus intertlinearis, (Zurich, 1836). </ref>

During World War II, the codex suffered severely from water damage. Thus, the facsimile, as published in 1909, provides the most legible text. Some scholars believe that, originally, this codex formed a unit with the Gospel manuscript Codex Sangallensis 48 (Δ/037). Boernerianus is housed now in the Saxon State Library (A 145b), Dresden, Germany, while Δ (037) is at Saint Gallen, in Switzerland.<ref name = Metzger/>

See also

References

1.^ a b Kurt Aland, and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction To The Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1995, p. 110. 2.^ a b C. R. Gregory, „Textkritik des Neuen Testaments“, Leipzig 1900, vol. 1, p. 112. 3.^ a b Bruce M. Metzger, Bart D. Ehrman, The Text Of The New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 75-76. 4.^ NA26, p. 466. 5.^ Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament ([[Deutsche Biblegesellschaft: Stuttgart, 2001), pp. 499-500. 6.^ A. H. McNeile, An Introduction to the Study of the New Testament, revised by C. S. C. Williams, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1955, p. 399. 7.^ F. H. A. Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, 4th ed. (George Bell & Sons: London 1894), Vol. 1, p. 180. 8.^ A. Reichardt, Introduction Der Codex Boernerianus. Der Briefe des Apostels Paulus, Verlag von Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig 1909, S. 12. 9.^ E. Windisch, Das altirische Gedicht im Codex Boernerianus, in the "Berichten über die Verhandlungen der Kgl. Sächs Gesellschaft der Wiss. Zu Leipzig philos.-hist.-Klasse", Vol 421890, p. 83. See also: Alexander Reichhart, Introduction, translated by Robert Relyea. 10.^ B. M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1981, p. 104. 11.^ Alexander Reichardt, Indtoruction, translated by Robert Relyea. 12.^ Gardthausen, Griechische Paläographie (Greek Paleography). Leipzig 1879. p. 271, 428 and 166; see also. H. Marsh, Comments. . to J. D. Michaelis' Introduction. I. p. 263 13.^ Alexander Chalmers, The General biographical dictionary (London 1812), Vol. 4, pp. 508-509. 14.^ Ch. F. Matthaei, XIII epistolarum Pauli codex Graecus cum versione latine veteri vulgo Antehieronymiana olim Boernerianus nunc bibliothecae electoralis Dresdensis, Meissen, 1791. 15.^ H. C. M. Rettig, Antiquissimus quattor evangeliorum canonicorum Codex Sangallensis Graeco-Latinus intertlinearis, (Zurich, 1836).

For further readings

  • P. Corssen, Epistularum Paulinarum Latine Scriptos Augeinsem, Boernerianum, Claroomntanum examinavit, 1887-1889.
  • W. H. P. Hatch, On the Relationship of Codex Augiensis and Codex Boernerianus of the Pauline Epistles, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 60, 1951, pp. 187-199.
  • Alexander Reichardt, Der Codex Boernerianus. Der Briefe des Apostels Paulus, Verlag von Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig 1909.
  • Philip W. Comfort, Encountering the Manuscripts: An Introduction to New Testament Paleography and Textual Criticism, Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2005.
  • Bruce M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1981.

External links

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