Revelation 17:8

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Revelation 17

(Textus Receptus, Novum Testamentum, Theodore Beza, 4th folio edition. Geneva. 1598)

(King James Version, Pure Cambridge Edition 1900)

(King James Version 2016 Edition, 2016)

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Commentary

καίπερ ἐστίν

There are at least four different readings here:

(1) kai parestai
(2) kai parestin
(3) kai palin pareste
(4) kaiper estin.

καίπερ

From καί (2532) and περ (4007).

Apart from Revelation 17:8, καίπερ appears in the following verses in the Textus Receptus:

  • Philippians 3:4 Though I might also have confidence in the flesh. If any other man thinketh that he hath whereof he might trust in the flesh, I more:
  • Hebrews 5:8 Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered;
  • Hebrews 12:17 For ye know how that afterward, when he would have inherited the blessing, he was rejected: for he found no place of repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears.
  • 2 Peter 1:12 Wherefore I will not be negligent to put you always in remembrance of these things, though ye know them, and be established in the present truth.
Scrivener

Ethiopic

Revelation 17:8 in Ethiopic in Waltons 1657 Polyglot
Revelation 17:8 in Ethiopic in Waltons 1657 Polyglot

The Ethiopic has (translated into Latin), from Waltons 1657:

quod fuit et non fuit.

translated as:

that was and was not.

Thus the Ethiopic omits καίπερ ἐστίν altogether, along with the Vulgate.

Codex Alexandrinus

καὶπαρ ἔστι Codex Alexandrinus
καὶπαρ ἔστι Codex Alexandrinus

Codex Alexandrinus reads καὶπαρ ἔστι[1]

Erasmus

καὶπερ ἔστι in Erasmus' 1516 Greek New Testament
καὶπερ ἔστι in Erasmus' 1516 Greek New Testament

Erasmus' first edition reads καίπερ ἔστι_. His third reads καίπερ ἔστιν.

Some have claimed that Erasmus' reading is a grammatical blunder. Eberhard Nestle used it as an important example of the bad quality of the Textus Receptus. It was recorded in the Nestle editions (up to NA25).

The Stigma (letter) (ST) is used.

Luther

Luther, in his 1545 New Testament has the same reading as the KJV:

wenn sie sehen das Tier, daß es gewesen ist und nicht ist, wiewohl es doch ist.

Geneva Bible

Revelation 17:8 in the Geneva Bible of 1560
Revelation 17:8 in the Geneva Bible of 1560

The 1560 Geneva Bible reads exactly as the KJV following καίπερ ἔστιν. It contains a footnote:

That is as many as have not learned the providence of God, according to the faith of the Saints, shall marvel at these grievous and often changes when they shall consider, that selfsame beast, which is the Roman Empire, to have been, not to be, and to be and still molested with perpetual mutation, and yet in the same to stand and continue. This is mine opinion is the most simple exposition of this place, confirmed by the event of the things themselves. Although the last change also, by which the Empire, that before was civil became Ecclesiastical, is not obscurely signified in these words; of which two, the first exercised cruelty upon the bodies of the saints; the other also upon their souls; the first by humane order and policy, the other under the color of the law of God, and of Religion, raged and imbrued itself with the blood of the godly.

Elziever

Elzevir 1624 reads καίπέρ ἐστιν.

Granville Penn

Revelation 17.8 in Alexandrian MSS in Granville Penn's Annotations to the Book of the New Covenant: With an Expository Preface
Revelation 17.8 in Alexandrian MSS in Granville Penn's Annotations to the Book of the New Covenant: With an Expository Preface

In Granville Penn's Annotations to the Book of the New Covenant: With an Expository Preface of 1837, he shows a facsimile of Revelation 17.8 in Alexandrian MSS which shoes Erasmus' reading; but due to his bias, he re-writes it claiming it reads kai parestai.[2]

Bengel's Gnomen

καὶ παρέσται[189]) The ancient authorities, with the greatest agreement, have this reading: some, καὶ πάρεστιν. It is not so clear respecting M. and Pet. 3 only. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. Erasmus himself, if he were alive, would, as I think, yield the victory to so many MSS., which are now accessible, and would wonder at his followers, who so superstitiously preserve the readings formerly established by him with difficulty. When I deny, that the particle καίπερ is anywhere used by John, Wolf retorts, that not even the word παρέσται is used by John.[190] But the two cases are dissimilar. For no idiomatic usage excludes the verb παρέσται. The Hebrew usage, which John greatly follows, almost everywhere renders the particle although, by ו or καὶ, according to Noldii Concord, pp. 292, 293, not by καίπερ. Another argument is to be added, which plainly refutes the construction of Erasmus, καίπερ ἐστίν. For all the passages of the New Testament teach, that καίπερ is not construed with a verb, but with a participle: 2 Peter 1:12; Hebrews 5:8; Hebrews 7:5; Hebrews 12:17; and especially Php 3:4. And thus οἱ ἔξω. Demosth., ΤΑῦΤΑ ΜΝΗΜΟΝΕΎΕΤΕ ῬΗΘΈΝΤΑ, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ ὌΝΤΕς Οὐ ΔΕΙΝΟῚ ΤΟῪς ἈΔΙΚΟῦΝΤΑς ΜΕΜΝῆΣΘΑΙ. The same, ἝΚΑΣΤΟΝ ὐΜῶΝ, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ ἈΚΡΙΒῶς ΕἸΔΌΤΑ, ὍΜΩς ὐΠΟΜΝῆΣΑΙ ΒΟΎΛΟΜΑΙ. The same, ΔΕῖ ΜΕ, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ Οὐ ΦΙΛΟΛΟΊΔΟΡΟΝ ὌΝΤΑ ΦΎΣΕΙ, ΑὐΤᾺ ΤᾺ ἈΝΑΓΚΑΙΌΤΑΤΑ ΕἸΠΕῖΝ ΠΕΡῚ ΑὐΤΟῦ. Aristotle, Ἀλλὰ καίπερ ὄντος τοιούτου τοῦ παρόντος λόγου, πειρατέον βοηθεῖν. Euripides, ΚἈΓΏ Σʼ ἹΚΝΟῦΜΑΙ, ΚΑῚ ΓΥΝΉ ΠΕΡ ΟὖΣʼ ὍΜΩς, ΤΟῖς ΔΕΟΜΈΝΟΙΣΙΝ ὨΦΕΛΕῖΝ, ΟἿΌς ΤΕ Δʼ ΕἾ. Sophocles, Γινώσκω σαφῶς, Καίπερ σκοτεινὸς (that is, ὢν) τήν γε σὴν αὐδὴν ὅμως. Dion, ΤᾺ ΤΟῦ ΤΙΒΕΡΊΟΥ ἜΡΓΑ, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ (Xiphilinus, ΚΑῚ) ΧΑΛΕΠΏΤΑΤΑ ΔΌΞΑΝΤΑ ΓΕΓΟΝΈΝΑΙ, ΠΑΡᾺ ΤᾺ ΓΑΐΟΥ—ΠΑΡΉΝΕΓΚΑΝ. Zosimus, Καίπερ ἐν τούτοις ὄντι τῷ στρατοπέδῳ, περὶ φιλίας ὅμως ἐποιοῦντο λόγους οἱ Πέρσαι. Julian, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ ΤΑῦΤΑ ΠΟΛΥΠΡΑΓΜΟΝῶΝ, ᾘΔΕῖΤΟ ΤῸ ΜΈΓΕΘΟς ΑὐΤΟῦ Τῆς ἈΡΕΤῆς. But if any one affirms that ΚΑΊΠΕΡ is construed also with a verb, let him prove it by examples, and those too in which ΠΕΡ is not ΠΑΡΈΛΚΟΝ, as in Apollonius Rhodius, but signifies although. The nature of the particle does not permit it: for even the simple words, of which καίπερ is compounded, namely καὶ (for although) less frequently, and ΠΕΡ (in Devarius), never take a verb joined with them. A more weighty argument is, that the conjecture ΚΑΊΠΕΡ takes away much from the sentiment: for the wonder of them that dwell on the earth is excited not so much by that, that the beast was and is not, as by this, that the beast ΠΑΡΈΣΤΑΙ, will be present. Enough of criticism: but not however to no purpose. The passage is momentous. That tetragrammaton, יהוה, LORD, has a magnificent periphrasis, ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, who is, and who was, and who is to come. But the dwellers on the earth wonder at the beast, as though a kind of antitetragrammaton; for he was, and is not, and will be present. The Lord is described as ὁ ἐρχόμενος, coming: the beast ΠΑΡΈΣΤΑΙ, will be present, when that other king comes, Revelation 17:10; and that ΠΑΡΟΥΣΊΑ (comp. altogether 2 Thessalonians 2) is by far the most destructive. To the Hebrew word, בוא, both ἜΡΧΟΜΑΙ and ΠΆΡΕΙΜΙ correspond in the LXX.; and in this place, ΚΑῚ ΠΑΡΈΣΤΑΙ most appropriately accords with ἮΝ ΚΑΙ ΟὐΚ ἜΣΤΙ, and it conveys a meaning something less, than if it were said, ΚΑῚ ἜΡΧΕΤΑῚ, or ΚΑῚ ἜΣΤΑΙ.

Bengel's Gnomen

καὶ παρέσται[189]) The ancient authorities, with the greatest agreement, have this reading: some, καὶ πάρεστιν. It is not so clear respecting M. and Pet. 3 only. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. Erasmus himself, if he were alive, would, as I think, yield the victory to so many MSS., which are now accessible, and would wonder at his followers, who so superstitiously preserve the readings formerly established by him with difficulty. When I deny, that the particle καίπερ is anywhere used by John, Wolf retorts, that not even the word παρέσται is used by John.[190] But the two cases are dissimilar. For no idiomatic usage excludes the verb παρέσται. The Hebrew usage, which John greatly follows, almost everywhere renders the particle although, by ו or καὶ, according to Noldii Concord, pp. 292, 293, not by καίπερ. Another argument is to be added, which plainly refutes the construction of Erasmus, καίπερ ἐστίν. For all the passages of the New Testament teach, that καίπερ is not construed with a verb, but with a participle: 2 Peter 1:12; Hebrews 5:8; Hebrews 7:5; Hebrews 12:17; and especially Php 3:4. And thus οἱ ἔξω. Demosth., ΤΑῦΤΑ ΜΝΗΜΟΝΕΎΕΤΕ ῬΗΘΈΝΤΑ, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ ὌΝΤΕς Οὐ ΔΕΙΝΟῚ ΤΟῪς ἈΔΙΚΟῦΝΤΑς ΜΕΜΝῆΣΘΑΙ. The same, ἝΚΑΣΤΟΝ ὐΜῶΝ, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ ἈΚΡΙΒῶς ΕἸΔΌΤΑ, ὍΜΩς ὐΠΟΜΝῆΣΑΙ ΒΟΎΛΟΜΑΙ. The same, ΔΕῖ ΜΕ, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ Οὐ ΦΙΛΟΛΟΊΔΟΡΟΝ ὌΝΤΑ ΦΎΣΕΙ, ΑὐΤᾺ ΤᾺ ἈΝΑΓΚΑΙΌΤΑΤΑ ΕἸΠΕῖΝ ΠΕΡῚ ΑὐΤΟῦ. Aristotle, Ἀλλὰ καίπερ ὄντος τοιούτου τοῦ παρόντος λόγου, πειρατέον βοηθεῖν. Euripides, ΚἈΓΏ Σʼ ἹΚΝΟῦΜΑΙ, ΚΑῚ ΓΥΝΉ ΠΕΡ ΟὖΣʼ ὍΜΩς, ΤΟῖς ΔΕΟΜΈΝΟΙΣΙΝ ὨΦΕΛΕῖΝ, ΟἿΌς ΤΕ Δʼ ΕἾ. Sophocles, Γινώσκω σαφῶς, Καίπερ σκοτεινὸς (that is, ὢν) τήν γε σὴν αὐδὴν ὅμως. Dion, ΤᾺ ΤΟῦ ΤΙΒΕΡΊΟΥ ἜΡΓΑ, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ (Xiphilinus, ΚΑῚ) ΧΑΛΕΠΏΤΑΤΑ ΔΌΞΑΝΤΑ ΓΕΓΟΝΈΝΑΙ, ΠΑΡᾺ ΤᾺ ΓΑΐΟΥ—ΠΑΡΉΝΕΓΚΑΝ. Zosimus, Καίπερ ἐν τούτοις ὄντι τῷ στρατοπέδῳ, περὶ φιλίας ὅμως ἐποιοῦντο λόγους οἱ Πέρσαι. Julian, ΚΑΊΠΕΡ ΤΑῦΤΑ ΠΟΛΥΠΡΑΓΜΟΝῶΝ, ᾘΔΕῖΤΟ ΤῸ ΜΈΓΕΘΟς ΑὐΤΟῦ Τῆς ἈΡΕΤῆς. But if any one affirms that ΚΑΊΠΕΡ is construed also with a verb, let him prove it by examples, and those too in which ΠΕΡ is not ΠΑΡΈΛΚΟΝ, as in Apollonius Rhodius, but signifies although. The nature of the particle does not permit it: for even the simple words, of which καίπερ is compounded, namely καὶ (for although) less frequently, and ΠΕΡ (in Devarius), never take a verb joined with them. A more weighty argument is, that the conjecture ΚΑΊΠΕΡ takes away much from the sentiment: for the wonder of them that dwell on the earth is excited not so much by that, that the beast was and is not, as by this, that the beast ΠΑΡΈΣΤΑΙ, will be present. Enough of criticism: but not however to no purpose. The passage is momentous. That tetragrammaton, יהוה, LORD, has a magnificent periphrasis, ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, who is, and who was, and who is to come. But the dwellers on the earth wonder at the beast, as though a kind of antitetragrammaton; for he was, and is not, and will be present. The Lord is described as ὁ ἐρχόμενος, coming: the beast ΠΑΡΈΣΤΑΙ, will be present, when that other king comes, Revelation 17:10; and that ΠΑΡΟΥΣΊΑ (comp. altogether 2 Thessalonians 2) is by far the most destructive. To the Hebrew word, בוא, both ἜΡΧΟΜΑΙ and ΠΆΡΕΙΜΙ correspond in the LXX.; and in this place, ΚΑῚ ΠΑΡΈΣΤΑΙ most appropriately accords with ἮΝ ΚΑΙ ΟὐΚ ἜΣΤΙ, and it conveys a meaning something less, than if it were said, ΚΑῚ ἜΡΧΕΤΑῚ, or ΚΑῚ ἜΣΤΑΙ.

Eberhard Nestle

Eberhard Nestle said of the reading of καίπερ ἐστίν:

By what pleas can one be justified in repeating a grammatical monstrum like the καίπερ ἐστίν (Rev 17.8)[3]

Nestle also stated:

“As early as 1734, J. A. Bengel recognised that in the Apocalypse p 4 Erasmus must have used only one manuscript, and that partly mutilated, so that he was unable to read it correctly and was obliged to supply its lacunæ by means of a retranslation from the Latin into Greek. And this conclusion was confirmed in 1861 by the rediscovery of that very manuscript by Franz Delitzsch in the Oettingen-Wallerstein Library at Mayhingen.” [Eberhard Nestle, Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the Greek New Testament, ed. Allan Menzies, trans. William Edie (London; New York; Edinburgh; Oxford: Williams and Norgate, 1901), p. 3–4.]

A Nestle’s book states:

“...We find also constructions like οὐκ ἔστι, καίπερ ἐστίν, in c. 17:8, where, however, the accentuation ἐστίν makes Erasmus responsible for an additional error he did not commit, seeing that he at least printed ἔστιν. Every college lad knows that καίπερ is construed with the participle, though it is not perhaps every one that will see just at once that καὶ πάρεστι is the correct reading.” [Nestle, p. 4, footnote 1]

Hoskier

Hoskier - Concerning the Text of the Apokalypse by Hermann C. Hoskier Published 1929
Hoskier - Concerning the Text of the Apokalypse by Hermann C. Hoskier Published 1929
Revelation 17.8 Hoskier Revelation TR reading
Revelation 17.8 Hoskier Revelation TR reading

In Hoskier, "Text," Volume 2, p. 454, at the bottom of the page he has the readings "et tamen ventura" for the Arabic and "et (tamen) adventare" for the Syriac. These Latin translations of the Arabic and Syriac come from Waltons Polyglot. These readings, ventura and adventare are still not present tense like the KJV, but rather imminent and future.

et tamen ventura arab "and yet about to come"
et (tamen) adventare Harklean Syriac "and (yet) to approach"

Thayer

Thayer has:

καίπερ ( Treg. καί περ in Heb.; from Homer, Odyssey 7,224down), conjunc. (originally even very much, cf. Donaldson § 621; Bäumlein, p. 200f; Krüger, § 56,13, 2; Buttmann, § 144,23; Winer s Grammar, § 45,2at the end), although; it is joined to a participle (in Greek writings sometimes also to an adjective, so that ὤν must be supplied): Philippians 3:4; Hebrews 5:8; Hebrews 7:5; Hebrews 12:17; 2 Peter 1:12; contrary to ordinary usage (yet so occasionally in Greek writings) with a finite verb, καίπερ ἐστιν, Revelation 17:8 Rec.; but since Griesbach καί παρέσται (correctly παρέσται (see in πάρειμι)) has been restored after the best manuscripts.

Jan Krans

Krans states:

“One of the Erasmian blunders was in the Nestle editions, originally as part of Nestle’s publicity campaign towards the British and Foreign Bible Society which in 1900 was still printing and selling an edition of the Textus Receptus (cf. Nestle, Textus Receptus, pp. 10.11). It concerns Rev 17:8, where min. 2814 reads καὶ παρέσται. Erasmus edited it as the ungrammatical καίπερ ἔστιν which is mentioned in N3–12 under ς (the siglum for TR) and in N13–25 under ‘Erasm’. It is also mentioned in Nestle, Einführung, 21899, pp. 7–8.” [Krans, p. 54 footnote 6]

William Combs

William Combs stated:

“No Greek manuscript reads “and yet is...” Further he states, “This error, and a few others, derive from the circumstances surrounding the production of Eramsus’ Greek NT (1516). For the book of Revelation, Erasmus had access to only one manuscript (1r). However, this was not really a separate manuscript of the text of Revelation but was actually imbedded in a commentary on Revelation by Andreas of Caesarea. As such it was difficult for the printer to read the text itself, so Erasmus had a fresh copy of the text made. The copyist himself misread the original at places, and thus a number of errors were introduced into Erasmus’ printed text. In Rev 17:8 the copyist mistakenly wrote καίπερ ἔστιν (“and yet is”) instead of καὶ παρέσται (“and shall come”). This is an indisputable error in the KJV and the Greek text (TR) that underlies it. Interestingly, Edward F. Hills, who was one of the leading exponents of the KJV, admitted that this is an error.” [William W. Combs, “Errors in the King James Version?,” Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal Volume 4 (1999): 155–156.”

Jeffery Khoo

Jeffery Khoo said:

Combs then went on to deal with "textual errors" in the TR. He brought up two examples from the Book of Revelation, namely, 17:8 and 16:5 in that order. For Revelation 17:8, he says, "No manuscript reads, ‘and yet is’; all have ‘and shall come.’"40 Combs overstates for it is not true that "no manuscript" reads "and yet is." Paradoxically, Combs himself contradicts this by admitting there is at least one manuscript (Codex 1r)—the actual manuscript Erasmus used—though the actual text was embedded in the commentary of Andreas of Caesarea, somewhat like the Study Bibles we have today. It is significant to note that Erasmus used that manuscript because he saw it as a very old manuscript possibly from the time of the Apostles for the manuscript bore the name of Hippolytus of Rome (AD 200-250)41 who was a disciple of Irenaeus. Irenaeus was a disciple of Polycarp and Polycarp was a disciple of the Apostle John. In light of God’s special providence, there could be an apostolic tradition here that has preserved the autographic text of Revelation, the Spirit guiding Erasmus to the correct text.42
Combs says that it is "an indisputable error" in the KJV if all extant manuscripts are in agreement. Well, all extant manuscripts are not in agreement here. There are at least four variant readings: (1) kai parestai, (2) kai parestin, (3) kai palin pareste, and (4) kaiper estin.43 Combs who favours the Critical Text prefers kai parestai, while those who favour the TR will go with kaiper estin which is the reading found consistently not only in the Greek text of Erasmus, but also Stephenus, Beza, Elzevir, and Scrivener. Interestingly, the two other variants namely parestin and pareste—both the present tense of pareimi—are closer to the reading of the TR than the Critical Text. There is thus more than meets the eye, and Combs assumes too much to conclude that Revelation 17:8 contains "an indisputable error." Even Hills whom Combs cites was not very sure himself that it is a mistake.44 If it was indeed "an indisputable error" as Combs thinks, that kai parestai was mistaken for kaiper estin in the first edition of Erasmus’s Greek Text, then surely it would have been corrected in the second, but it is interesting to note that all subsequent editions of Erasmus read the same as either kai per estin (with the space between kai and per) or kaiper estin (without the space), both meaning the same. It looks like Combs is faulting the TR for a textual error which was not there in the first place, for the reading of Codex 1r was not kai parestai, but kai per estin or kaiper estin.45 Neither should the reading of kaiper as one word (without the space) be seen as an error for in classical Greek literature it often appears as one word, especially in Greek Tragedy.46
Hoskier after his collection and collation of over 200 manuscripts for the Book of Revelation had this to say about Erasmus’s Text, "I may state that if Erasmus had striven to found a text on the largest number of existing MSS [manuscripts] in the world of one type, he could not have succeeded better."47 I agree with this observation of Dean Burgon Society scholar Jack Moorman, "Here then is a powerful example of God’s guiding providence in preserving the text of Revelation."48 In light of God’s special providential preservation of His inspired words, we reject Comb’s claim that Revelation 17:8 as found in the TR is a textual error.

Edward Hills

Edward Hills said:

Edward Hills: "The few typographical errors which still remain in the Textus Receptus of Revelation do not involve important readings. This fact, clearly attributable to God's special providence, can be demonstrated by a study of H. C. Hoskier's monumental commentary on Revelation (1929), (19) which takes the Textus Receptus as its base. Here we see that the only typographical error worth noting occurs in Rev.17:8, the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. Here the reading kaiper estin (and yet is) seems to be a misprint for kai paresti (and is at hand), which is the reading of Codex 1r the manuscript which Erasmus used in Revelation." [4](King James Version Defended, Christian Research Press, 4th edition, 1984, p. 202))

James White

In the book The King James Only Controversy by James White, it says:

And then there is Revelation 17:8, where the scribe mistakenly wrote “and is not, and yet is” KJV, for the actual reading “and is not and will come” NASB...

Jack Moorman

Jack Moorman points out in his book When the KJV Departs from the “Majority” Text, that not only does the Sinaiticus third reading give the same sense as that found in the TR, but so also do the Greek readings found in manuscripts 2049, 1854, 2014, 2034 plus 31 other Andreas type manuscripts. He says:

REVELATION 17:8
AV when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is
HF RP CR …and is not, and will come
Geneva Bishops Steph. Beza Elz.
2049.
Keep in mind that the context of the reading is the future Tribulation (not John’ s day). It strains the sense to be looking at something that “will come”. :“Those who dwell on the earth will wonder…when they see the beast that…will come” (NASV). When the world looks at him he “is”, not “shall be”.
A variant (kai paresti) read by Aleph-c, about 31 Andreas type mss, and the Syriac Sinaitic can translate virtually the same as the KJV.
Aleph* 1854 2014 2034, an early Armenian ms would also translate about the same.[5]

Hodges and Farstad

Doctors Hodges and Farstad, who put together the so called “Majority” Text, also note on page 777 of their book that there are also several Greek manuscripts that read “and IS” - parestin, the present tense of the verb parestai, instead of the future tense of this verb “and shall be” which is followed by many of the every changing modern versions.

Trinitarian Bible Society

The Trinitarian Bible Society, in a pamphlet on the New King James Version says in te footnotes:

The other verse in which the spelling error does impact the meaning slightly, and which is a typographical error, is found in Revelation 17.8. The error is found in the words ‘the beast which was, and is not, and yet is’. The words for ‘yet is’ are kaiper estin where the reading should be kai parestai. (The words were broken in the wrong place.) kai parestai is the reading of all the Greek manuscripts. This changes the phrase to read ‘the beast which was, and is not, and is about to be’. [6]

Eberhard Nestle

...By what pleas can one be justified in repeating a grammatical monstrum like the καίπερ ἐστίν (Rev 17.8), or as words of St. John, what Erasmus translated from the Latin Vulgate (Rev 22.19–21), because the only MS. which was at his disposal was defective? - Eberhard Nestle, “‘The Greek New Testament’ of the Bible Society of Stuttgart,” Expository Times 9 (1897–98): 419–420. (PDF here)

ἐστίν

ἐστιν and ἐστι are the same; ἐστι is the actual word, it is just that originally you would add a nu (ν) to certain words that ended with a vowel if the next word started with a vowel. This is called "euphony," and is a function of "phonology." The ancient Greeks, Attic dialect especially, did not like the sound of it when a word or syllable that ended in a vowel, was immediately followed by a word or syllable that started with a vowel. In laymen's terms: this means they thought the glottal stop sounded ugly, so they would add a liquid consonant in order to glide smoothly into the next syllable that started with a vowel, wanting to avoid the glottal stop (the glottal stop is like an Aleph). Thus "euphony" is the process of making something "nicer sounding." We do the same thing in English, for example, the indefinite article, "a" because we don't like the sound of a glottal stop in between when we say "a N." Thus, "an N." The usual illustration is "a apple" versus "an apple." We add the "n" to "a" before the word apple, for the same reason that the Attics did such a thing.

Moveable Nu is added to words ending in -SI, to the third person singular in -E, and to ESTI. But the moveable Nu was also added at the end of a clause, and to the end of a verse. Also, before a consonant, to add length (that is, longer duration of time). The correct English term is Moveable Nu. The Greeks called it "Nu EPHELKUSTIKON" or Nu dragging after.

Hebrew actually adds a glottal stop symbol sometimes, the Aleph, because all syllables must be CVC, consonant-vowel-consonant. This is very different from Greek, where no word can end with a consonant, with the exception of rho, nu, or sigma (plus Ksi and Psi, which when at the end of a word end with the s sound).

Greek

Textus Receptus

Revelation 17:8 in the 1514 Complutensian Polyglot
Revelation 17:8 in the 1514 Complutensian Polyglot

Desiderius Erasmus

Colinæus

Stephanus (Robert Estienne)

  • 1546 (Robert Estienne (Stephanus) 1st)
  • 1549 (Robert Estienne (Stephanus) 2nd)
  • 1550 τὸ θηρίον, ὃ εἶδες, ἦν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστι, καὶ μέλλει ἀναβαίνειν ἐκ τῆς ἀβύσσου, καὶ εἰς ἀπώλειαν ὑπάγειν· καὶ θαυμάσονται οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὧν οὐ γέγραπται τὰ ὀνόματα ἐπὶ τὸ βιβλίον τῆς ζωῆς, ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, βλεπόντες τὸ θηρίον ὅ, τι ἦν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστι, καὶπερ ἔστιν. (Robert Estienne (Stephanus) 3rd - Editio Regia)
  • 1551 τὸ θηρίον, ὃ εἶδες, ἦν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστι, καὶ μέλλει ἀναβαίνειν ἐκ τῆς ἀβύσσου, καὶ εἰς ἀπώλειαν ὑπάγειν· καὶ θαυμάσονται οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὧν οὐ γέγραπται τὰ ὀνόματα ἐπὶ τὸ βιβλίον τῆς ζωῆς, ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, βλεπόντες τὸ θηρίον ὅ, τι ἦν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστι, καὶπερ ἔστιν. (Robert Estienne (Stephanus) 4th)

Theodore Beza

Revelation 17:8 in Beza's 1598 Greek New Testament
Revelation 17:8 in Beza's 1598 Greek New Testament
Revelation 17:8 footnote in Beza's 1598 Greek and Latin New Testament
Revelation 17:8 footnote in Beza's 1598 Greek and Latin New Testament

See Also Revelation 17:8 Beza 1598 (Beza)

  • 1604 (Beza Octavo 5th)

Elzevir

Scholz

Scrivener

Other Greek

  • 1857 (Tregelles' Greek New Testament)
  • ὁ θηρίον ὅς ὁράω εἰμί καί οὐ εἰμί καί μέλλω ἀναβαίνω ἐκ ὁ ἄβυσσος καί εἰς ἀπώλεια ὑπάγω καί θαυμάζω ὁ κατοικέω ἐπί ὁ γῆ ὅς οὐ γράφω ὁ ὄνομα ἐπί ὁ βιβλίον ὁ ζωή ἀπό καταβολή κόσμος βλέπω ὁ θηρίον ὅτι εἰμί καί οὐ εἰμί καί πάρειμι (Tischendorf 8th Ed.)
  • 1881 τὸ θηρίον ὃ εἶδες ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν, καὶ μέλλει ἀναβαίνειν ἐκ τῆς ἀβύσσου, καὶ εἰς ἀπώλειαν ὑπάγει· καὶ θαυμασθήσονται οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὧν οὐ γέγραπται τὸ ὄνομα ἐπὶ τὸ βιβλίον τῆς ζωῆς ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, βλεπόντων τὸ θηρίον ὅτι ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν καὶ πάρεσται. (Westcott & Hort)
  • 1904 Τὸ θηρίον ὃ εἶδες, ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστι, καὶ μέλλει ἀναβαίνειν ἐκ τῆς ἀβύσσου καὶ εἰς ἀπώλειαν ὑπάγειν· καὶ θαυμάσονται οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὧν οὐ γέγραπται τὸ ὄνομα ἐπὶ τὸ βιβλίον τῆς ζωῆς ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, βλεπόντων τὸ θηρίον ὅτι ἦν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστι καὶ παρέσται. (Greek orthodox Church)
  • 1904 τὸ θηρίον ὃ εἶδες ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν, καὶ μέλλει ἀναβαίνειν ἐκ τῆς ἀβύσσου καὶ εἰς ἀπώλειαν ὑπάγει· καὶ θαυμασθήσονται οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὧν οὐ γέγραπται τὸ ὄνομα ἐπὶ τὸ βιβλίον τῆς ζωῆς ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, βλεπόντων τὸ θηρίον ὅτι ἦν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν καὶ παρέσται. (Nestle)

Anglo Saxon Translations

  • 1000 (Anglo-Saxon Gospels Manuscript 140, Corpus Christi College by Aelfric)
  • 1200 (Anglo-Saxon Gospels Hatton Manuscript 38, Bodleian Library by unknown author)

English Translations

  • 1395 The beeste which thou seist, was, and is not; and sche schal stie fro depnesse, and sche schal go `in to perisching. And men dwellinge in erthe schulen wondre, whos names ben not writun in the book of lijf fro the makinge of the world, seynge the beeste, that was, and is not. (Wyclif's Bible by John Wycliffe)
  • 1534 The best that thou seest was and is not and shall ascende out of the bottomlesse pytt and shall goo into perdicion and they that dwell on the erth shall wondre (whose names are not wrytten in the boke of lyfe from ye begynnynge of the worlde) when they beholde the best that was and ys nott. (Tyndale Bible by William Tyndale)
  • 1535 The beest that thou seest, was, and is not, and shall ascende out of the bottomlesse pytt, and shal go in to perdicion, and they that dwell on the earth shal wondre (whose names are not wrytten in the boke of life from the begynnynge of the worlde) when they beholde the beest that was, and is not. (Coverdale Bible)
  • 1540 The beast that thon seest, was, and is not, and shall ascende out of the bottomlesse pyt, and shall go into perdicion, & they that dwel on the erth shall wondre (whose names are not written in the boke of lyfe from the begynnynge of the worlde) when they behold the beast that was and is not. (Great Bible Second Edition - Miles Coverdale)
  • 1549 The beaste that thou seest, was, & is not, & shal ascende out of the bottomlesse pyt, & shal go into perdition, and they that dwel on the earth, shal wondre (whose names are not wrytten in the boke of lyfe from the beginninge of the worlde) when they beholde the beaste that was, and is not. (Matthew's Bible - John Rogers)
Revelation 17:8 in the Geneva Bible of 1560
Revelation 17:8 in the Geneva Bible of 1560
  • 1568 The beast that thou seest, was, and is not, and shall ascende out of the bottomlesse pyt, and shall go into perdition, and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder (whose names are not written in the booke of lyfe from the begynnyng of the world) when they beholde the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. (Bishop's Bible First Edition
  • 1587 The beast that thou hast seene, was, and is not, and shall ascend out of the bottomles pit, and shall goe into perdition, and they that dwell on the earth, shall wonder (whose names are not written in the booke of life from the foundation of ye world) when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. (Geneva Bible) by William Whittingham
Revelation 17:8 in the Geneva Bible of 1599
Revelation 17:8 in the Geneva Bible of 1599
Revelation 17:8 in the KJV of 1611
Revelation 17:8 in the KJV of 1611
  • 1611 The beast that thou sawest, was, and is not, and shall ascend out of the bottomlesse pit, and goe into perdition, and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, (whose names were not written in the booke of life from the foundation of the world) when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. (King James Version)
  • 1729 the beast that thou sawest, was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, shall wonder when they behold the beast that was, and is not, but shall be. (Mace New Testament)
  • 1745 The wild beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the abyss, and goes into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and shall come, (Mr. Whiston's Primitive New Testament)
  • 1769 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. (King James Version - Benjamin Blayney)
  • 1770 The beast, which thou sawest, was, and is not; but will rise out of the abyss, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth (whose names are not written on the book of life from the foundation of the world) shall wonder, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is to be. (Worsley Version by John Worsley)
  • 1790 The wild beast which thou sawest was, and is not, and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition; and they that dwell on the earth, (whose names are not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world) shall wonder when they behold the wild beast, that he was, and is not, and yet will be. (Wesley Version by John Wesley)
  • 1795 The beast which thou seest was, and is not; and shall come up out of the abyss [of hell], and shall go into perdition: and the dwellers upon earth will wonder, (whose names are not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world,) when they shall see the beast which was, and is not, though he is. (A Translation of the New Testament from the Original Greek by Thomas Haweis)
  • 1833 The beast that thou sawest, was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. (Webster Version - by Noah Webster)
  • 1835 The beast which you saw, was, and is not; and he will ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go to destruction; and the inhabitants of the earth (whose names are not written in the book of life, from the foundation of the world) shall wonder, seeing the beast who was, and is not, yet shall be. (Living Oracles by Alexander Campbell)
  • 1849 The beast of prey which thou seest, was, and is not; and will ascend from the abyss, and go into perdition: and they who dwell on the earth will admire, they whose name is not written in the book of life from the foundations of the world, while they see the beast of prey, who was, and is not, and draweth nigh. (Etheridge Translation by John Etheridge)
  • 1851 (Murdock Translation)
  • 1858 The beast which you saw was and is not, and is about to come up from the abyss, and goes to destruction; and those who live on the earth, whose names are not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, will wonder, when they see the beast that he was and is not and is to come. (The New Testament Translated from the Original Greek by Leicester Sawyer)
  • 1865 The wild-beast which thou sawest, was, and not is, and is about to come up out of the abyss, and into destruction to go; and will wonder those dwelling on the earth, of whom not has been written the names on the scroll of the life from a casting down of a world, beholding the wildbeast because he was, and not is, and will be present. (The Emphatic Diaglott by Benjamin Wilson)
  • 1865 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not, and is to come up out of the abyss, and to go into perdition; and they will wonder who dwell on the earth, whose names are not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, seeing the beast, that he was, and is not, and shall come. (The New Testament of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ 1865 by American Bible Union)
  • 1869 The beast which thou sawest, was, and is not, and is to come up out of the abyss, and goeth into perdition; and they that dwell on the earth, whose names have not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, will wonder, when they see the beast, that he was, and is not, and yet will come. (Noyes Translation by George Noyes)
  • 1873 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. (King James Version) by Frederick Scrivener)
  • 1885 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and is about to come up out of the abyss, and to go into perdition. And they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, [they] whose name hath not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast, how that he was, and is not, and shall come. (Revised Version also called English Revised Version - Charles Ellicott editor)
  • 1890 The beast which thou sawest was, and is not, and is about to come up out of the abyss and go into destruction: and they who dwell on the earth, whose names are not written from the founding of the world in the book of life, shall wonder, seeing the beast, that it was, and is not, and shall be present. (Darby Version 1890 by John Darby)
  • 1898 `The beast that thou didst see: it was, and it is not; and it is about to come up out of the abyss, and to go away to destruction, and wonder shall those dwelling upon the earth, whose names have not been written upon the scroll of the life from the foundation of the world, beholding the beast that was, and is not, although it is. (Young's Literal Translation by Robert Young)
  • 1901 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and is about to come up out of the abyss, and to go into perdition. And they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, `they' whose name hath not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast, how that he was, and is not, and shall come. (American Standard Version - Philip Schaff)
  • 1902 The wild–beast which thou sawest, was, and is not, and is about to come up out of the abyss, and into, destruction, goeth away. And they who are dwelling upon the earth whose name is not written upon the book of life from the foundation of the world, will be astonished, when they see the wild–beast, because it was, and is not, and shall be present. (The Emphasised Bible Rotherham Version)
  • 1902 The beast which you saw was, and is not; and is about to come up out of the abyss, and go into perdition: and those dwelling upon the earth, whose name has not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, will be astonished, seeing the beast, because he was, and is not, and will be. (Translation of the New Testament from the Original Greek by William Godbey)
  • 1904 The beast which you saw was, and is not, and is about to come up out of the abyss, and to go into perdition. And those who dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names have not been written in the book of life from the founding of the world, when they behold the beast, that he was, and is not, and shall come. (The New Testament: Revised and Translated by Adolphus Worrell)
  • 1904 The Beast that you saw was, but is not, and is about to rise out of the bottomless pit, and is on its way to destruction. Those who are living on earth will be amazed—those whose names have not been written in the Book of Life from the foundation of the world—when they see that the Beast was, but is not, and yet will come.' (Twentieth Century New Testament by Ernest Malan and Mary Higgs)
  • 1911 (Syrus Scofield)
  • 1912 (Weymouth New Testament)
  • 1918 The beast that you saw, was, and is not, and will come out of the abyss, and go to perdition; and those who dwell on the earth, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, will wonder, when they see the beast that was, and is not, though he is yet present. (The New Testament Translated from the Sinaitic Manuscript by Henry Anderson)
  • 1923 (Edgar Goodspeed)

Foreign Language Versions

Arabic

  • الوحش الذي رأيت كان وليس الآن وهو عتيد ان يصعد من الهاوية ويمضي الى الهلاك. وسيتعجب الساكنون على الارض الذين ليست اسماؤهم مكتوبة في سفر الحياة منذ تأسيس العالم حينما يرون الوحش انه كان وليس الآن مع انه كائن. (Arabic Smith & Van Dyke)

Aramaic

  • ܚܝܘܬܐ ܕܚܙܝܬ ܐܝܬܝܗ ܗܘܬ ܘܠܝܬܝܗ ܥܬܝܕܐ ܕܬܤܩ ܡܢ ܝܡܐ ܘܠܐܒܕܢܐ ܐܙܠܐ ܘܢܬܕܡܪܘܢ ܥܡܪܝ ܥܠ ܐܪܥܐ ܗܢܘܢ ܕܠܐ ܟܬܝܒܝܢ ܫܡܗܝܗܘܢ ܒܤܦܪܐ ܕܚܝܐ ܡܢ ܬܪܡܝܬܗ ܕܥܠܡܐ ܕܚܙܝܢ ܚܝܘܬܐ ܕܐܝܬܝܗ ܗܘܬ ܘܠܝܬܝܗ ܘܩܪܒܬ (Aramaic Peshitta)

Basque

  • Ikussi vkan duán bestiá, içan duc, eta eztuc guehiagoric: eta igaiteco duc abysmetic, eta perditionetara ioaiteco: eta miretsiren dié lurreco habitantéc (ceinén icenac ezpaitirade scribatuac vicitzeco liburuän munduaren hatseandanic) dacussatenean bestiá, cein baitzén, eta ezpaita, eta alabaina baita.

Bulgarian

  • 1940 Звярът, който си видял, беше, но го няма; обаче, скоро ще възлезе из бездната и ще отиде в погибел. И земните жители, всеки, чието име не е написано в книгата на живота от създанието на света, ще се зачудят, когато видят, че звярът беше и го няма, но пак ще дойде. (Bulgarian Bible)

Chinese

  • 1 你 所 看 见 的 兽 , 先 前 有 , 如 今 没 有 , 将 要 从 无 底 坑 里 上 来 , 又 要 归 於 沉 沦 。 凡 住 在 地 上 、 名 字 从 创 世 以 来 没 有 记 在 生 命 册 上 的 , 见 先 前 有 、 如 今 没 有 、 以 後 再 有 的 兽 , 就 必 希 奇 。 (Chinese Union Version (Simplified))
  • 1 你 所 看 見 的 獸 , 先 前 有 , 如 今 沒 有 , 將 要 從 無 底 坑 裡 上 來 , 又 要 歸 於 沉 淪 。 凡 住 在 地 上 、 名 字 從 創 世 以 來 沒 有 記 在 生 命 冊 上 的 , 見 先 前 有 、 如 今 沒 有 、 以 後 再 有 的 獸 , 就 必 希 奇 。 (Chinese Union Version (Traditional))

French

  • La bête que tu as vue était, et n'est pas, et va monter de l'abîme et aller à la perdition; et ceux qui habitent sur la terre, dont les noms ne sont pas écrits dès la fondation du monde au livre de vie, s'étonneront, en voyant la bête, -qu'elle était, et qu'elle n'est pas, et qu'elle sera présente. (French Darby)
  • 1744 La bête que tu as vue, a été, et n'est plus, mais elle doit monter de l'abîme, et puis être détruite; et les habitants de la terre, dont les noms ne sont point écrits au Livre de vie dès la fondation du monde, s'étonneront voyant la bête qui était, qui n'est plus, et qui toutefois est. (Martin 1744)
  • 1744 La bête que tu as vue, a été et n'est plus; elle doit monter de l'abîme, et s'en aller en perdition; et les habitants de la terre, dont les noms ne sont pas écrits dans le livre de vie, dès la création du monde, s'étonneront en voyant la bête, car elle était, et elle n'est plus, bien qu'elle soit. (Ostervald 1744)

German

  • 1545 Das Tier, das du gesehen hast, ist gewesen und ist nicht und wird wiederkommen aus dem Abgrund und wird fahren in die Verdammnis, und werden sich verwundern, die auf Erden wohnen (deren Namen nicht geschrieben stehen in dem Buch des Lebens von Anfang der Welt), wenn sie sehen das Tier, daß es gewesen ist und nicht ist, wiewohl es doch ist. (Luther 1545)
  • 1871 Das Tier, welches du sahest, war und ist nicht und wird aus dem Abgrund heraufsteigen (O. steht im Begriff… heraufzusteigen) und ins Verderben gehen; und die auf der Erde wohnen, deren Namen nicht in dem Buche des Lebens geschrieben sind von Grundlegung der Welt an, werden sich verwundern, wenn sie das Tier sehen, daß es war und nicht ist und da sein (O. kommen) wird. (Elberfelder 1871)
  • 1912 Das Tier, das du gesehen hast, ist gewesen und ist nicht und wird wiederkommen aus dem Abgrund und wird fahren in die Verdammnis, und es werden sich verwundern, die auf Erden wohnen, deren Namen nicht geschrieben stehen in dem Buch des Lebens von Anfang der Welt, wenn sie sehen das Tier, daß es gewesen ist und nicht ist und dasein wird. (Luther 1912)

Italian

  • 1649 La bestia che tu hai veduta, era, e non è più; e salirà dell’abisso, e poi andrà in perdizione; e gli abitanti della terra, i cui nomi non sono scritti nel libro della vita, fin dalla fondazione del mondo, si maraviglieranno, veggendo la bestia che era, e non è, e pure è. (Giovanni Diodati Bible 1649)
  • 1927 La bestia che hai veduta era, e non è, e deve salire dall’abisso e andare in perdizione. E quelli che abitano sulla terra i cui nomi non sono stati scritti nel libro della vita fin dalla fondazione del mondo, si maraviglieranno vedendo che la bestia era, e non è, e verrà di nuovo. (Riveduta Bible 1927)

Japanese

Latin

  • bestiam quam vidisti fuit et non est et ascensura est de abysso et in interitum ibit et mirabuntur inhabitantes terram quorum non sunt scripta nomina in libro vitae a constitutione mundi videntes bestiam quia erat et non est Latin Vulgate
  • 1527 (Erasmus 1527)
  • 1527 (Erasmus Vulgate 1527)

Pidgin

  • 1996 (Pidgin King Jems)

Romainian

  • 2010 Fiara, pe care ai văzut -o, era, şi nu mai este. Ea are să se ridice din Adînc, şi are să se ducă la perzare. Şi locuitorii pămîntului, ale căror nume n'au fost scrise dela întemeierea lumii în cartea vieţii, se vor mira cînd vor vedea că fiara era, nu mai este, şi va veni. - (Biblia Traducerea Fidela în limba româna)

Russian

  • 1876 Зверь, которого ты видел, был, и нет его, и выйдет из бездны, и пойдет в погибель; и удивятся те из живущих на земле, имена которых не вписаны в книгу жизни от начала мира, видя, что зверь был, и нет его, и явится. Russian Synodal Version

Phonetically:

Spanish

  • La bestia que has visto, fué, y no es; y ha de subir del abismo, y ha de ir á perdición: y los moradores de la tierra, cuyos nombres no están escritos en el libro de la vida desde la fundación del mundo, se maravillarán viendo la bestia que era y no es, a (RVG Spanish)

Swedish

  • 1917 Vilddjuret som du har sett, det har varit, och är icke mer; men det skall stiga upp ur avgrunden, och det går sedan i fördärvet. Och de av jordens inbyggare, vilkas namn icke från världens begynnelse äro skrivna i livets bok, skola förundra sig, när de få se vilddjuret som har varit, och icke mer är, men dock skall komma. -- (Swedish - Svenska 1917)

Tagalog

  • 1905 At ang hayop na nakita mo ay naging siya, at wala na; at malapit ng umahon sa kalaliman, at patungo sa kapahamakan. At silang mga nananahan sa lupa ay manggigilalas na ang kanilang pangalan ay hindi nakasulat sa aklat ng buhay mula nang itatag ang sanglibutan, pagkakita nila sa hayop, kung paano naging siya at wala na, at darating. (Ang Dating Biblia 1905)

Tok Pisin

  • 1996 (Tok Pisin King Jems)

Vietnamese

  • 1934 Con thú ngươi đã thấy, trước có, mà bây giờ không còn nữa; nó sẽ từ dưới vực lên và đi đến, chốn hư mất; những dân sự trên đất, là những kẻ không có tên ghi trong sách sự sống từ khi sáng thế, thấy con thú thì đều lấy làm lạ, vì nó trước có, nay không có nữa, mà sau sẽ hiện đến. (VIET)

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