Codex Athous Lavrensis

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Codex Athous Laurae designated by Ψ or 044 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), δ 6 (von Soden), is a Greek uncial manuscript of the Gospels, Acts of Apostles, the Catholic Epistles, and the Pauline epistles.[]

The codex now is located, in Athos, in the monastery (Great Lavra B' 52) at Athos peninsula.[]



Original codex contained entire of the New Testament except of the Book of Revelation with lacunae. The Gospel of Matthew, the Gospel of Mark 1:1-9:5, and one leaf from the Hebrews have been lost. The Catholic Epistles are in an unusual order (1-2 Peter, James, 1-3 John, and Jude). The shorter ending of Mark is before the longer one (like in Codex Regius and all other Greek codices in which it appears).[]

The codex contains 261 parchment leaves (21 cm by 15.3 cm). The dimensions of column is 15 cm by 8,7 cm.[]

It was written in one column per page, 31 lines per page, in small uncial letters.[] The letters have breatings and accents.[] It contains tables of κεφαλαια, Ammonian Sections (Mark 233), Eusebian Canons, lectionary equipment on a margin, music notes (neumes), and subscriptoins.[] It one of the oldest manuscripts with music notes.

The verses Mark Mark 11:26 and Mark 15:28 are omitted. Text of John 7:53-8:11 omitted.[]

The codex is dated paleographically to the 8th or 9th century.[]


The Greek text of this codex is generally described as a representative of the Byzantine text-type, but with a large portion of the Alexandrian, and some Western readings. It has unusualy mixed text. Von Soden lists it as generally Alexandrian. In the Gospel of Mark and the Catholic epistles it represents the Alexandrian text-type.[] In Gospel of Luke and John the Byzantine element is predominate, but with larger proportion of Alexandrian readings than in Codex Sangallensis 48.[] The text of the Catholic epistles seems to be of the same type found in Codex Alexandrinus, 33, 81, and 436. Kurt Aland placed it in Category III in Gospels, Acts, Pauline epistles, and in Category II in the Catholic epistles.[]

Textual variants

Mark 9:49

It has unique variant θυσια αναλωθησεται instead of αλι αλισθησεται.[]

Mark 10:7

και προσκολληθησεται προς την γυναικα αυτου (and be joined to his wife) omitted, as in codices Codex Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, 892, 48, syrs, goth.[]

Mark 10:19

phrase μη αποστερησης omitted, as in codices B (added by second corrector), K, W, f1, f13, 28, 700, 1010, 1079, 1242, 1546, 2148, 10, 950, 1642, 1761, syrs, arm, geo.[] This omission is typical for the manuscripts of the Caesarean text-type.

Luke 9:35

it use the longest reading αγαπητος εν ο ευδοκησα — as in codices C3 D 19 31 47 48 49 49m 183 183m 211m;[][]

Acts 15:23

It has one of the longest readings γραψαντης επιστολην δια χειρος αυτων εχουσαν τον τυπον τουτον. The other manuscripts read:
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων — <math>\mathfrak{P}</math>45, <math>\mathfrak{P}</math>74, א*, A, B, copbo
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων ταδε — אc, E, (33), Byz, syrh
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων επιστολην περιεχουσαν ταδε — C, ar, c, gig, w, geo
γραψαντης επιστολην δια χειρος αυτων περιεχουσαν ταδε — D, d
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων επιστολην και πεμψαντες περιεχουσαν ταδε — 614.[]

Acts 20:28

It reads του κυριου (of the Lord) together with the manuscripts <math>\mathfrak{P}</math>74, A, C*, D, E, 33, 36, 453, 945, 1739, 1891. The Alexandrian manuscripts usually reads του Θεου (of the God), the Byzantine manuscripts have του κυριου και του Θεου (of the Lord and God).[]

Acts 27:16

Γαυδην — it is only one manuscript with this reading.[]

1 Timothy 3:16

It supports textual variant θεος εφανερωθη.[][]


The manuscript was first seen by C. R. Gregory on August 26, 1886, who described it as the first. In 1892 it has been seen but not examined by J. Rendel Harris, who was inspecting the Septuaginta manuscripts. Von Goltz and Wobbermin had collated text of Acts, Catholic epistles, and Pauline epistles for Hermann von Soden. The codex was examined by Kirsopp Lake in 1899, who thoroughly examined the Gospel of Mark and collated the text of the Gospel of Luke and John. He did not examined text of Acts and Epistles because according Soden's opinion their text is ordinary. In 1903 Lake published the text of the Gospel of Mark 9:5-16:20, and a collation of the Gospels of Luke, John, and Epistle to the Colossians in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica.[]

See also


  • 1. For more details of the variants of this verse see: Textual variants in the Gospel of Luke.
  • 2. For more details of the variants of this verse see: Textual variants in the Acts of the Apostles.
  • 3. For more textual variants of this verse see: Textual variants in the Acts of the Apostles.


  • 1. Kurt Aland, and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, transl. Erroll F. Rhodes, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1995, p. 118.
  • 2. Bruce M. Metzger, Bart D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, New York - Oxford 2005, Oxford University Press, pp. 84-85.
  • 3. K. Lake, Texts from Mount Athos, Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, 5 (Oxford 1903), p. 94.
  • 4. C. R. Gregory, „Textkritik des Neuen Testaments“, Leipzig 1900, vol. 1, p. 94.
  • 5. Codex Sangallensis 48 also represents the Alexandrian text-type in the Gospel of Mark, and the Byzantine text-type in rest of the Gospels.
  • 6. NA26, p. 121.
  • 7. UBS3, p. 164.
  • 8. UBS3, p. 165.
  • 9. UBS3, p. 246.
  • 10. NA26, p. 366.
  • 11. NA26, p. 384.
  • 12. K. Lake, Texts from Mount Athos, Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, 5 (Oxford 1903).

Further reading

  • Kirsopp Lake, Texts from Mount Athos, Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, 5 (Oxford 1903), pp. 89-185.
  • Kirsopp Lake, The Text of Ψ in St. Mark, JTS I (1900), pp. 290-292.
  • C. R. Gregory, Textkritik des Neuen Testaments (Leipzig 1900), vol. 1, pp. 94-95.
  • Hermann von Soden, Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments in ihrer altesten erreibaren Textgestalt, I, III (Berlin, 1910), pp. 1664,-1666, 1841, 1921, 1928.
  • M.-J. Lagrange, La critique rationnelle (Paris, 1935), pp. 109 f.

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