Books of the Bible

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The Books of the Bible are listed differently in the canons of Judaism and the Catholic, Protestant, Greek Orthodox, Slavonic Orthodox, Georgian, Armenian Apostolic, Syriac and Ethiopian churches, although there is substantial overlap. A table comparing the canons of some of these traditions appears below, comparing the Jewish Bible with the Christian Old Testament and New Testament. For a detailed discussion of the differences, see "Biblical canon".

The Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches may have minor differences in their lists of accepted books. The list given here for these churches is the most inclusive: if at least one Eastern church accepts the book it is included here.

Contents

Tanakh, Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible

Template:See also A table cell with an asterisk (*) indicates that a book is present but in a different order. Empty cells indicate that a book is absent from that canon.

The disputed books are often called the Biblical apocrypha, a term that is sometimes used specifically (and possibly pejoratively in English) to describe the books in the Catholic and Orthodox canons that are absent from the Jewish Masoretic Text (also called the Tanakh or Miqra) and most modern Protestant Bibles. Catholic Christians, following the Canon of Trent, describe these books as deuterocanonical, meaning of "the second canon," while Greek Orthodox Christians, following the Synod of Jerusalem (1672), use the traditional name of anagignoskomena, meaning "that which is to be read." They are present in a few historic Protestant versions: the German Luther Bible included such books, as did the English 1611 King James Version.[]

Note that this table uses current spellings of the NAB. Spellings of the 1609-1610 Douay-Rheims Bible describing the Catholic biblical canon were traslated different but the same books. In the spirit of ecumenism more recent Catholic translations, such as the 1970 are similar or identical spellings (e.g. 1 Chronicles) as Protestant Bibles in those books which are jointly considered canonical, i.e. the protocanonicals.

Tanakh
(Jewish Bible)
Protestant Old Testament Catholic Old Testament Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Original Language
Torah or Instruction
Pentateuch or Five Books
Bereishit (In the beginning) Genesis Genesis Genesis Hebrew
Shemot (Names) Exodus Exodus Exodus Hebrew
Vayikra (And He called) Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus Hebrew
Bamidbar (In the wilderness) Numbers Numbers Numbers Hebrew
Devarim (Words) Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Hebrew
Nevi'im or Prophets
Historical books
Joshua Joshua Joshua Joshua Hebrew
Judges Judges Judges Judges Hebrew
see below Ruth Ruth Ruth Hebrew
Samuel 1 Samuel 1 Samuel 1 Samuel (1 Kingdoms)[] Hebrew
2 Samuel 2 Samuel 2 Samuel (2 Kingdoms)[] Hebrew
Kings 1 Kings 1 Kings 1 Kings (3 Kingdoms)[] Hebrew
2 Kings 2 Kings 2 Kings (4 Kingdoms)[] Hebrew
Chronicles
see below
1 Chronicles 1 Chronicles 1 Chronicles Hebrew
2 Chronicles 2 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Hebrew
1 Esdras Hebrew
Ezra (includes Nehemiah)
see below
Ezra Ezra Ezra (2 Esdras)[][] Hebrew(+Aramaic)
Nehemiah Nehemiah Nehemiah (2 Esdras)[][] Hebrew
Tobit Tobit Hebrew(+Aramaic)
Judith Judith Hebrew
see below Esther Esther[] Esther[] Hebrew
1 Maccabees[] 1 Maccabees Hebrew
2 Maccabees[] 2 Maccabees Hebrew
3 Maccabees Greek
4 Maccabees Greek
Wisdom books
see below Job Job Job Hebrew
see below Psalms Psalms Psalms[] Hebrew
Odes[] Hebrew(+Greek)
see below Proverbs Proverbs Proverbs Hebrew
see below Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Hebrew
see below Song of Songs Song of Songs Song of Songs Hebrew
Wisdom Wisdom Hebrew
Sirach Sirach Hebrew, then translated into Greek
Major prophets
Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah Hebrew
Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah Hebrew(+Aramaic)
see below Lamentations Lamentations Lamentations Hebrew
Baruch<ref name="baruch">In Catholic Bibles, Baruch includes a sixth chapter called the Letter of Jeremiah. Baruch is not in the Protestant Bible or the Tanakh.</ref> Baruch<ref name="baruch"/> Hebrew <ref>Britannica 1911</ref>
Letter of Jeremiah<ref>Eastern Orthodox Bibles have the books of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah separate.</ref> Hebrew(+Greek)<ref name = "xsfucn">New English Translation of the Septuagint</ref>
Ezekiel Ezekiel Ezekiel Ezekiel Hebrew
see below Daniel Daniel<ref name="daniel">In Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, Daniel includes three sections not included in Protestant Bibles. The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children are included between Daniel 3:23-24. Susanna is included as Daniel 13. Bel and the Dragon is included as Daniel 14. These are not in the Protestant Old Testament.</ref> Daniel<ref name="daniel"/> Hebrew+Aramaic
Minor prophets
Trei Asar or Twelve Hosea Hosea Hosea Hebrew
Joel Joel Joel Hebrew
Amos Amos Amos Hebrew
Obadiah Obadiah Obadiah Hebrew
Jonah Jonah Jonah Hebrew
Micah Micah Micah Hebrew
Nahum Nahum Nahum Hebrew
Habakkuk Habakkuk Habakkuk Hebrew
Zephaniah Zephaniah Zephaniah Hebrew
Haggai Haggai Haggai Hebrew
Zechariah Zechariah Zechariah Hebrew
Malachi Malachi Malachi Hebrew
Ketuvim or Writings<ref>These books are found among the historical and wisdom books of the Christian canons.</ref>
Psalms Hebrew
Proverbs Hebrew
Job Hebrew
Song of Songs Hebrew
Ruth Hebrew
Lamentations Hebrew
Ecclesiastes Hebrew
Esther Hebrew
Daniel Hebrew+Aramaic
Ezra (includes Nehemiah) Hebrew(+Aramaic)
Chronicles Hebrew

New Testament

Template:See also In general, among Christian denominations, the New Testament Canon is an agreed-upon list of 27 books, although book order can vary. The book order is the same in the Greek Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant tradition.<ref group=L name=Luther/> The Slavonic, Armenian and Ethiopian traditions have different New Testament book orders to this.

Catholic, E. Orthodox, Protestant,
and most O. Orthodox
Traditional
Luther Bible<ref group=L name=Luther/>
Traditional
Syriac
Original Language
(Koine Greek)
Canonical Gospels
Matthew Matthew Matthew Greek (?)<ref name="gospelmatthew">See Aramaic or Hebrew. Most scholars consider the Gospel of Matthew to have been written in Koine Greek, though some experts maintain the view that it was originally composed in Aramaic or Hebrew. See Wikipedia's Gospel of Matthew and New Testament articles.</ref>
Mark Mark Mark Greek
Luke Luke Luke Greek
John John John Greek
Apostolic History
Acts Acts Acts Greek
Pauline Epistles
Romans Romans Romans Greek
1 Corinthians 1 Corinthians 1 Corinthians Greek
2 Corinthians 2 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Greek
Galatians Galatians Galatians Greek
Ephesians Ephesians Ephesians Greek
Philippians Philippians Philippians Greek
Colossians Colossians Colossians Greek
1 Thessalonians 1 Thessalonians 1 Thessalonians Greek
2 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians Greek
1 Timothy 1 Timothy 1 Timothy Greek
2 Timothy 2 Timothy 2 Timothy Greek
Titus Titus Titus Greek
Philemon Philemon Philemon Greek
General Epistles
Hebrews Hebrews<ref group=L name=Luther>Four New Testament works were questioned or "spoken against" by Martin Luther, and he changed the order of his New Testament to reflect this, but he did not leave them out, nor has any Lutheran body since. Traditional German "Luther Bibles" are still printed with the New Testament in this changed "Luther Bible" order.</ref> Hebrews Greek (?)<ref name="epistlehebrews">Contemporary scholars believe the Hebrews to have been written in Greek, though a minority believe it was originally written in Hebrew, then translated into Greek by Luke. See Wikipedia's New Testament article.</ref>
James James<ref group=L name=Luther/> James Greek
1 Peter 1 Peter 1 Peter Greek
2 Peter 2 Peter Greek
1 John 1 John 1 John Greek
2 John 2 John Greek
3 John 3 John Greek
Jude Jude<ref group=L name=Luther/> Greek
Apocalypse
Revelation Revelation<ref group=L name=Luther/> Greek

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church has a few additional books in its canon: Jubilees, Book of Enoch, 4 Baruch along with three books of Meqabyan that are unique to their canon.

The Peshitta excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch (sometimes included as part of 2 Baruch). Still today the official lectionary followed by the Syrian Orthodox Church (with headquarters at Kottayam (Kerala), and the Chaldean Syriac Church, also known as the Church of the East (Nestorian), with headquarters at Trichur (Kerala)) presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions.

The Third Epistle to the Corinthians and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were once considered part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but are no longer printed with modern editions.

The New Testament has different orders in the Slavonic, Ethiopian, Syriac and Armenian traditions. Protestant Bibles in Russia and Ethiopia usually follow the local Orthodox order for the New Testament.

Chart Notes

<references group=L />

Apocryphal or Deuterocanonical books

These are the Biblical Apocrypha; books recognized by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox & Oriental Orthodox Churches as being part of scripture (and thus deuterocanonical rather than apocryphal), but most Protestants do not recognize them. Many other Christians recognize them as good, but not on the level of the other books of the Bible. Anglicanism, as stated in the Thirty-nine Articles, consider the apocrypha to be "read for example of life" but not used "to establish any doctrine."<ref name="39articles"/> Luther made a parallel statement in calling them: "not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read."<ref>The Popular and Critical Bible Encyclopædia and Scriptural Dictionary, Fully Defining and Explaining All Religious Terms, Including Biographical, Geographical, Historical, Archæological and Doctrinal Themes, p.521, edited by Samuel Fallows et al, The Howard-Severance company, 1901,1910. - Google Books</ref>

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See also

Notes

External links

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