Books of the Bible
From Textus Receptus
The Books of the Bible are listed differently in the canons of Judaism and the Catholic, Protestant, Greek Orthodox, Slavonic Orthodox, Georgian, Armenian Apostolic, Syriac and Ethiopian churches, although there is substantial overlap. A table comparing the canons of some of these traditions appears below, comparing the Jewish Bible with the Christian Old Testament and New Testament. For a detailed discussion of the differences, see "Biblical canon".
The Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches may have minor differences in their lists of accepted books. The list given here for these churches is the most inclusive: if at least one Eastern church accepts the book it is included here.
Tanakh, Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible
Template:See also A table cell with an asterisk (*) indicates that a book is present but in a different order. Empty cells indicate that a book is absent from that canon.
The disputed books are often called the Biblical apocrypha, a term that is sometimes used specifically (and possibly pejoratively in English) to describe the books in the Catholic and Orthodox canons that are absent from the Jewish Masoretic Text (also called the Tanakh or Miqra) and most modern Protestant Bibles. Catholic Christians, following the Canon of Trent, describe these books as deuterocanonical, meaning of "the second canon," while Greek Orthodox Christians, following the Synod of Jerusalem (1672), use the traditional name of anagignoskomena, meaning "that which is to be read." They are present in a few historic Protestant versions: the German Luther Bible included such books, as did the English 1611 King James Version.
Note that this table uses current spellings of the NAB. Spellings of the 1609-1610 Douay-Rheims Bible describing the Catholic biblical canon were traslated different but the same books. In the spirit of ecumenism more recent Catholic translations, such as the 1970 are similar or identical spellings (e.g. 1 Chronicles) as Protestant Bibles in those books which are jointly considered canonical, i.e. the protocanonicals.
|Protestant Old Testament||Catholic Old Testament||Eastern Orthodox Old Testament||Original Language|
|Torah or Instruction|| |
Pentateuch or Five Books
|Bereishit (In the beginning)||Genesis||Genesis||Genesis||Hebrew|
|Vayikra (And He called)||Leviticus||Leviticus||Leviticus||Hebrew|
|Bamidbar (In the wilderness)||Numbers||Numbers||Numbers||Hebrew|
|Nevi'im or Prophets|| |
|Samuel||1 Samuel||1 Samuel||1 Samuel (1 Kingdoms)||Hebrew|
|2 Samuel||2 Samuel||2 Samuel (2 Kingdoms)||Hebrew|
|Kings||1 Kings||1 Kings||1 Kings (3 Kingdoms)||Hebrew|
|2 Kings||2 Kings||2 Kings (4 Kingdoms)||Hebrew|
|1 Chronicles||1 Chronicles||1 Chronicles||Hebrew|
|2 Chronicles||2 Chronicles||2 Chronicles||Hebrew|
| Ezra (includes Nehemiah)|
|Ezra||Ezra||Ezra (2 Esdras)||Hebrew(+Aramaic)|
|Nehemiah||Nehemiah||Nehemiah (2 Esdras)||Hebrew|
|1 Maccabees||1 Maccabees||Hebrew|
|2 Maccabees||2 Maccabees||Hebrew|
|see below||Song of Songs||Song of Songs||Song of Songs||Hebrew|
|Sirach||Sirach||Hebrew, then translated into Greek|
|Baruch<ref name="baruch">In Catholic Bibles, Baruch includes a sixth chapter called the Letter of Jeremiah. Baruch is not in the Protestant Bible or the Tanakh.</ref>||Baruch<ref name="baruch"/>||Hebrew <ref>Britannica 1911</ref>|
|Letter of Jeremiah<ref>Eastern Orthodox Bibles have the books of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah separate.</ref>||Hebrew(+Greek)<ref name = "xsfucn">New English Translation of the Septuagint</ref>|
|see below||Daniel||Daniel<ref name="daniel">In Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, Daniel includes three sections not included in Protestant Bibles. The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children are included between Daniel 3:23-24. Susanna is included as Daniel 13. Bel and the Dragon is included as Daniel 14. These are not in the Protestant Old Testament.</ref>||Daniel<ref name="daniel"/>||Hebrew+Aramaic|
|Trei Asar or Twelve||Hosea||Hosea||Hosea||Hebrew|
|Ketuvim or Writings<ref>These books are found among the historical and wisdom books of the Christian canons.</ref>|
|Song of Songs||Hebrew|
|Ezra (includes Nehemiah)||Hebrew(+Aramaic)|
Template:See also In general, among Christian denominations, the New Testament Canon is an agreed-upon list of 27 books, although book order can vary. The book order is the same in the Greek Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant tradition.<ref group=L name=Luther/> The Slavonic, Armenian and Ethiopian traditions have different New Testament book orders to this.
| Catholic, E. Orthodox, Protestant,|
and most O. Orthodox
Luther Bible<ref group=L name=Luther/>
| Original Language|
|Matthew||Matthew||Matthew||Greek (?)<ref name="gospelmatthew">See Aramaic or Hebrew. Most scholars consider the Gospel of Matthew to have been written in Koine Greek, though some experts maintain the view that it was originally composed in Aramaic or Hebrew. See Wikipedia's Gospel of Matthew and New Testament articles.</ref>|
|1 Corinthians||1 Corinthians||1 Corinthians||Greek|
|2 Corinthians||2 Corinthians||2 Corinthians||Greek|
|1 Thessalonians||1 Thessalonians||1 Thessalonians||Greek|
|2 Thessalonians||2 Thessalonians||2 Thessalonians||Greek|
|1 Timothy||1 Timothy||1 Timothy||Greek|
|2 Timothy||2 Timothy||2 Timothy||Greek|
|Hebrews||Hebrews<ref group=L name=Luther>Four New Testament works were questioned or "spoken against" by Martin Luther, and he changed the order of his New Testament to reflect this, but he did not leave them out, nor has any Lutheran body since. Traditional German "Luther Bibles" are still printed with the New Testament in this changed "Luther Bible" order.</ref>||Hebrews||Greek (?)<ref name="epistlehebrews">Contemporary scholars believe the Hebrews to have been written in Greek, though a minority believe it was originally written in Hebrew, then translated into Greek by Luke. See Wikipedia's New Testament article.</ref>|
|James||James<ref group=L name=Luther/>||James||Greek|
|1 Peter||1 Peter||1 Peter||Greek|
|2 Peter||2 Peter||Greek|
|1 John||1 John||1 John||Greek|
|2 John||2 John||Greek|
|3 John||3 John||Greek|
|Jude||Jude<ref group=L name=Luther/>||Greek|
|Revelation||Revelation<ref group=L name=Luther/>||Greek|
The Peshitta excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch (sometimes included as part of 2 Baruch). Still today the official lectionary followed by the Syrian Orthodox Church (with headquarters at Kottayam (Kerala), and the Chaldean Syriac Church, also known as the Church of the East (Nestorian), with headquarters at Trichur (Kerala)) presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions.
The New Testament has different orders in the Slavonic, Ethiopian, Syriac and Armenian traditions. Protestant Bibles in Russia and Ethiopia usually follow the local Orthodox order for the New Testament.
<references group=L />
Apocryphal or Deuterocanonical books
These are the Biblical Apocrypha; books recognized by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox & Oriental Orthodox Churches as being part of scripture (and thus deuterocanonical rather than apocryphal), but most Protestants do not recognize them. Many other Christians recognize them as good, but not on the level of the other books of the Bible. Anglicanism, as stated in the Thirty-nine Articles, consider the apocrypha to be "read for example of life" but not used "to establish any doctrine."<ref name="39articles"/> Luther made a parallel statement in calling them: "not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read."<ref>The Popular and Critical Bible Encyclopædia and Scriptural Dictionary, Fully Defining and Explaining All Religious Terms, Including Biographical, Geographical, Historical, Archæological and Doctrinal Themes, p.521, edited by Samuel Fallows et al, The Howard-Severance company, 1901,1910. - Google Books</ref>
- Wisdom of Solomon
- Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)
- Baruch with the Letter of Jeremiah
- Song of the Three Young Men and Prayer of Azariah
- Authors of the Bible
- Bible citation
- Biblical canon
- Deuterocanonical books
- Major prophets
- Minor prophets
- Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible
- Old Testament Reading Room & New Testament Reading Room: Extensive online resources for biblical studies (Tyndale Seminary)
- The Canon of Scripture – a Catholic perspective
- Table of Tanakh Books - includes Latin, English, Hebrew and abbreviated names (from Tel Aviv University).
- Judaica Press Translation - Online Jewish translation of the books of the Bible. The Tanakh and Rashi's entire commentary.
- Template:Language icon Slavonic Bible
- Books of the Apocrypha (from the UMC)
- Western Armenian Bible (an essay, with full official canon at the end)