List of Greek and Latin roots in English

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The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, suffixes, and prefixes commonly used in English.

Those used in medicine and medical terminology are not listed here but instead in Wikipedia's List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes.



Root In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin)

English Examples

ab-, a-, abs- away Latin ab "away" abnormal, abrasion, absent, abstract, aversion
ac-, acu- sharp or pointed Latin acutus past participle of acuere "to sharpen", from acus "needle" acid, acupuncture, acute
acri- sharp, pungent, bitter Latin acer acrid, acrimony
acro- height, summit, tip Greek Greek ἄκρος ákros "high", "extreme" acrobatics, acromegalia, acronym, acrophobia,
ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, ap-, ar-, as-, at- movement to or toward; in addition to Latin ad "to", "toward" adapt, affect, ascend, accept
adip- fat Latin adeps, adipis "fat" adipose
aer-, aero- air, atmosphere Greek ἀήρ (aer) "air" aeronautics, aerosol
aesthet feeling, sensation Greek aisthētikos "of sense perception" from αἰσθάνεσθαι aisthanesthai "to perceive" aesthetics
agri- field Latin ager "field, country" agriculture
agro- field Greek from Greek ἀγρός agros "field" agronomy
am-, amat-, amor- love, loved Latin amor "love" from amāre "to love" amateur, amorous
ambi- both, on both sides Latin ambi "on both sides" ambidexterity
amic-, -imic- friend Latin amicus amicable, inimical
amphi- around, about, both, on both sides of, both kinds Greek ἀμφί amphi "on both sides" amphibian, amphibolic
ampl- ample Latin amplus amplification
an-, a- not, without Greek Greek ἀν-/ἀ- "not" anhydrous, atypical
ana-, an- again, against, back, up Greek from Greek prefix ἀνά ana- "again", "against" anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anode
anima- breath Latin anima "breath" animal, animation
ann-, -enn- year, yearly Latin annus "year" anniversary, annual, biannual, millennium
ant-, anti- against, opposed to, preventive Greek ἀντί anti "against" antibiotic, antipodes
ante-, anti- before, in front of, prior to Latin ante "before", "against" antediluvian, antebellum, anticipate
anth-, antho- flower Greek ἄνθος anthos "flower" anther, anthology
anthropo- human Greek ἄνθρωπος anthropos "man" anthropology, anthropomorphic
apo- away from, separate, at the farthest point Greek ἀπό apo "from, away, un-, quite" apogee, apostasy
aqu- water Latin aqua aquamarine, aquarium, aqueduct
ar- plow, till Latin arāre arable
ar- be dry Latin ārēre "be dry or parched" arid
arche-, archi- ruler Greek ἀρχή arche "rule" (in compounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-) archangel, archetype
archaeo-, archeo- ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος arkhaios "ancient" from arkhē "beginning" archaeology or archeology, archaic
arct-, arcto- Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold; used as the scientific name of some bear species, e.g. Ursus arctos horribilis Greek ἄρκτος arktos "bear" Arctic Ocean
argent- silver Latin argentum "silver" argent, Argentina
arist-, aristo- excellence Greek ἀρετή, ἄριστος arete, aristos Aristocracy
arthr-, arthro- joint Greek ἄρθρον arthron "joint" arthritis, arthropod
astr-, astro- star, star-shaped Greek ἄστρον astron "star" asterisk, astrology, astronomy, disaster
athl- prize Greek ἄθλος athlos "contest, feat" athlete
aud-, audi- hearing, listening, sound Latin audire "to hear" auditorium, auditory
aug-, auct- grow, increase Latin augēre "to increase" augmentation
aur- relating to gold, or gold-colored Latin aurum "gold" aureole
auri- relating to the ear Latin auris "ear" auricle
aut- , auto- self; directed from within Greek αὐτός (autos) "self", "same" automobile, autonomy
avi- bird Latin avis "bird" aviary, aviation
axi- axis Latin axis "axis" axisymmetry
axio- merit Greek ἄξιος (axios) "worth" axiology


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
bac- rod-shaped Latin from baculum "rod" bacilla, bacteria
baro- weight, pressure Greek βάρος (baros) barometer, barograph, baroreceptor
basi- at the bottom Greek from βαίνω, I walk, march, βάσις "step" basic, basis
bathy-, batho- deep, depth Greek βαθύς (bathús, bathýs) "deep" batholith, bathyscaphe
be-, beat- bless Latin beare, beatus beatification
bell(i)- war Latin bellum, belli antebellum, bellicose, belligerent
ben- good, well Latin bene (adverb) benefit, benignity
bi- two Latin bis, "twice"; bini, "in twos" binoculars, bigamy, biscotti
bib- drink Latin bibere, bibitus imbibe
bibl- book Greek βιβλίον (biblíon) "book" bibliography, bible
bi(o)- life Greek βίος (bíos) "life" biology, biologist, biosphere
blenn(o)- slime Greek βλέννος (blennos) blennophobia, blennosperma
blast- germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleus Greek βλασταίνω, "I put forth shoots" sideroblast, fibroblast, osteoblast, blastula
bon(i)- good Latin bonus bonify, bonitary
bor- north Greek / Latin (boreas) Greek βορρᾶς (borras) "the north wind" borealis
botan- plant Greek βοτάνη, βότανον (botanē, botanon) botany
bov- cow, ox Latin bos, bovis bovine
brachi(o)- arm Greek βραχίων (brakhíōn) "arm" brachial artery, brachiosaurus
brachy- short Greek βραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs) "short" brachydactyly
brady- slow Greek βραδύς (bradús, bradýs) bradycardia
branch- gill Greek βράγχιον (brágkhion, bránkhion) "gill" branchiopod, nudibranch
brev(i)- brief, short (time) Latin brevis, breviare abbreviation, brevity
briz- nod Greek βρίζω (brizō)
brom- oats Greek βρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, bróme) "oats" Bromus ramosus
brom- oats Greek βρόμος (brómos) "stench, clangor" bromide
bronch- windpipe Greek βρόγχος (brógkhos, brónkhos) bronchitis, bronchus, bronchiole
bront- thunder Greek βροντή (brontē) Brontosaurus
bucc- cheek, mouth, cavity Latin bucca buccal, buccinator muscle
bulb- bulbous Latin bulbus bulbous, bulbule
bull- bubble, flask Latin bulla, "bubble" ebullient, ebullism
burs- pouch, purse Latin bursa bursar, bursary, disburse, bursa


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
cac(o)- bad Greek κακός (kakos) cacophony
cad-, -cid-, cas- fall Latin cadere, casus accident, cadence, case
caed-, -cid-, caes-, -cis- cut Latin caedere, caesus caesura, incisor, caesarean
calc- stone Latin and Greek from Latin calx "lime", and from Greek χάλιξ (khalix) "pebble" "limestone" calculus, calcite, calcium
calli- beautiful Greek from Greek κάλλος kallos "beauty" calligraphy
calor- heat Latin calor "heat" calorie
calyp- cover Greek καλύπτειν (kaluptein) apocalypse
camer- vault Latin camera bicameral, camera
camp- field Latin campus "field", "level ground" champion, campaign
can(i)- dog Latin canis "dog" canine, Canis Major
can-, -cin-, cant- sing Latin canere "sing" cantata, canto, cantor
cand- glowing, iridescent Latin candere "to be white or glisten" candid, incandescent, candle, candela
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept- hold, take Latin capere, captus "take or hold" (note the vowel change from a to i in compounds) capture, captive, conception, recipient
capit-, -cipit- head Latin caput, capitis "head" capital, decapitation, precipitation
capr- goat Latin caper, capri Capricorn, caprine
caps- box, case Latin capsa capsule
carbo- coal Latin carbo, carbonis carbon
carcer- jail Latin carcer, carcerare incarceration
carcin- cancer (disease) Latin from Greek Latin from Greek καρκίνος (karkinos) "crab" carcinoma, carcinogenic
cardi(o)- relating to the heart Greek καρδιά kardia "heart" cardiology, cardiograph
cardin- hinge Latin cardo, cardinis cardinal
carn- flesh Latin caro, carnis carnival, carnivore
carp(o)- relating to fruit Greek from Greek καρπός (karpos) "fruit" carpology, carpals
carp- relating to the wrist Greek from Greek καρπός (karpos) "wrist" carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cata- down Greek κατά kata "down" catastrophe, catatonia, catabolic
caten- chain Latin catena concatenation
cathar- pure Greek καθαρός (katharos) catharsis
caud- tail Latin cauda caudal
cav- hollow Latin cavus "hollow" cave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess- go Latin cedere, cessus procession, recede
celer- quick Latin celer, celerare acceleration, celerity
cen(o)- new Greek καινός (kainos) Cenozoic
cen(o)- empty Greek κενός (kenos) cenotaph
cens- Latin censere "to estimate" census
cent- hundred Latin centum cent, centennial, centurion
centen- hundred each Latin centeni centenary
centesim- hundredth Latin centesimus centesimal, centesimation
centr- center Greek κέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur" eccentric
cephalo- head Greek κεφαλή kephale "head" cephalopod, encephalogram, cephalic
ceram- clay Greek κέραμος (keramos) ceramic
cerat- horn Greek κέρας, κέρατος (keras, keratos) "horn" keratin
cern- sift Latin cernere discern
cervic- relating to the neck, relating to the cervix Latin cervix, cervicis "neck" cervix, cervical
ceter- other Latin ceterus et cetera
chiro- of the hand or hands Greek χείρ kheir "hand" chiroptera, chiropractic, chiral
chelono- relating to a turtle Greek χελώνη khelone "tortoise" chelonia
chloro- green Greek from Greek χλωρός khlōros "green" chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplast
choreo- relating to dance Greek from Greek χορεία khoreia "dancing in unison" from χορός khoros "chorus" choreography
chord- cord Latin and Greek chorda "rope" from χορδή (chordē) chordata
chrom- color Greek χρῶμα chrōma "color" chromosome, chromium
chryso- gold Greek χρυσός khrusos "gold" chrysolite
cili- eyelash Latin cilium cilia
cine- motion Greek κινέω (kineo) cinema
ciner- ash Latin cinis, cineris incineration
cing-, cinct- gird Latin cingere, cinctus succinct
circ- circle Latin circus circus
circum- around Latin circum "around" circumference, circumcise
cirr- orange Greek κιρρός (kirros) cirrhosis
cirr- curl, tentacle Latin cirrus cirrus
civ- citizen Latin civis civility
clad- branch Greek κλάδος (klados) clade
clar- clear Latin clarus, clarare clarity, declaration
clast- broken Greek κλαστός (klastos) iconoclast, osteoclast
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus- close Latin claudere, clausus clause, exclusion, include
clav- key Greek from Greek κλείς kleis "key" from κλείειν, kleiein "to close" conclave, clavicle
cl(e)ist- closed Greek κλειστός kleistos
cleithr- bar, key Greek
clement- mild Latin clemens, clementis clemency, inclement
clin- bed, lean, recline Latin -clinare declination, inclined
cochl- shell Greek κόχλος (kochlos) cochlea
coel- hollow Greek κοῖλος (koilos) spongocoel, coelom, blastocoel
cogn- know Latin cognoscere cognitive, cognizant, recognize
col- strain Latin colare, colum colander
coll- hill Latin collis
coll- neck Latin collum collar
color- color Latin color coloration
con-, co-, col-, com-, cor- with, together Latin cum connect, collide, compress
condi- season Latin condire condiment
con(o)- cone Greek κῶνος (konos) conic, conical
contra- against Latin contra contrast, contradict ("say against")
copro- dung Greek κόπρος (kopros) coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
corac- raven Greek κόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos) coracoid
cord- heart Latin cor, cordis accord, cordial
corn- horn Latin cornu cornea, cornucopia, unicorn, cornified
coron- crown Latin corona, coronare corona, coronation
corpor- body Latin corpus, corporis corporation, corpse, corpuscle
cortic- bark Latin cortex, corticis corticosteriod
cosm(o)-' universe Greek κόσμος (kosmos) cosmonaut
cosmet(o)- Greek κοσμετ (kosmet-) cosmetics, cosmetology
cost- rib Latin costa costal
cotyl- cup Greek κοτύλη (kotulē) cotyledon
crani- skull Greek κρανίον (kranion) cranium
crass- thick Latin crassus crassitude
cre- make Latin creare, creatus creation, creature
cred- believe, trust Latin credere, creditus credibility, credentials
crep- boot, shoe Greek κρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos)
cribr- sieve Latin cribrum, cribrare cribble, cribrate
ring Greek κρίκος (krikos)
cris-, crit- judge Greek κρίσις (crisis) crisis, critic
crisp- curled Latin crispus crispate
crist- crest Latin crista cristate
cross(o)- fringe, tassel Greek κροσσός (krossos)
cruc(i)- cross Latin crux, crucis crucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciating
crur(i)- leg, shank Latin crus, cruris crural
crypt- hidden Greek κρυπτός (kruptos) cryptic, cryptography
cten(o)- comb Greek κτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos) ctenophore
cub- cube Greek κύβος (kubos) cubic, cuboid
cub- lie Latin cubare incubation, succuba
culin- kitchen Latin culina culinary
culp- blame, fault Latin culpa culpable, exculpate
cune- wedge Latin cuneus cuneiform
curr-, curs- run Latin currere, cursus concurrent, recursion, cursive, current
curv- bent Latin curvus curvature
cuspid- lance, point Latin cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid
cut(i)- skin Latin cutis cuticle
cyan- blue Greek κυανός (kuanos) cyanide
cycl(o)- circular Greek κύκλος (kuklos) bicycle, cycle, cyclone
cylind- roll Greek κύλινδρος (kulindros) cylinder
cyn(o)- dog Greek κύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos) cynosure
cyst- capsule Greek κύστις (kustis) cystic
cyt(o)- cell Greek κύτος (kutos) cytoplasm, cnidocyte


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
dactyl- finger, toe, digit Greek δάκτυλος (daktulos) dactylology, pterodactyl
damn-, -demn- to inflict loss upon Latin damnāre condemn, damnation
de- from, away from, removing Latin delete, demented
deb- owe Latin debere, debitus debit
deca-, dec-, deka-, dek- ten Greek δέκα deka, ten decagram, decahedron
decim- tenth part Latin decimus, tenth; from decem, ten decimal, decimate
delt- Greek δέλτα (delta) deltoid
dem-, demo- people Greek δῆμος (dēmos) demagogue, democracy
den- ten each Latin deni denarius, denary
dendr-, dendro- resembling a tree Greek δένδρον (dendron): akin to δρύς, drys, "tree" dendrite
dens- thick Latin densus condense, density
dent- tooth Latin dens, dentis dental, dentures
derm- skin Greek δέρμα (derma) dermis, epidermis, hypodermic
deuter- second Greek δεύτερος (deuteros) Deuteronomy, deuterostome
dexter- right Latin dexter dexterity
dextro- right Greek δεξ-, right dextrose
di- two Greek δι dicot, dipole
dia- apart, through Greek διά (dia) dialysis, diameter
dict- say, speak Latin dicere, dictus contradict, dictation, dictionary, edict, predict
digit- finger Latin digitus digital
dino- terrible, fearfully great Greek δεινός (deinos) dinosaur
dipl- double; twofold Greek διπλός (diplos) diploid, diplosis
doc-, doct- teach Latin docere, doctus docile, doctor
dodec- twelve Greek δώδεκα (dodeka) dodecasyllabic
dog-, dox- opinion, teaching Greek δόξα dogmatic
dom- house Latin domus dome
dorm- sleep Latin dormire dormant, dormitory
dors- back Latin dorsum dorsal
du- two Latin duo dual
dub- doubtful Latin dubius dubious
duc-, duct- lead Latin dux, ducis abduction, conductor, introduction, production, reduction, deduction
dulc- sweet Latin dulcis
dur- hard Latin durus durable, duration, duress, endure, obdurate
dy- two Greek δυο (duo) dyad
dynam- power Greek δύναμη (dunamē) dynamism, dynasty
dys- badly, ill Greek δυσ- dysentery, dysplasia, dystrophy


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ec- out Greek ἐκ (ek) eccentric
eco- house Greek οἶκος (oikos) ecology, economics, ecumenism
ecto- outside Greek ἐκτός (ektos) ectoderm
ed-, es- eat Latin edere, esus edible
ego- self, I (first person) Latin, Greek ego, ἐγώ egocentric
ego-, eg- goat Greek αἴξ (aix) egophony
em-, empt- buy Latin emere, emptus exemption, redeem
eme- vomit Greek ἔμετος (emetos) emetic
emul- striving to equal, rivaling Latin aemulus, aemulare emulation
en-, em- in Greek ἐν (en) emphasis
endo- inside Greek ἔνδον (endon) endocrine
engy- narrow Greek ἐγγύς (engys)
ennea- nine Greek ἐννέα (ennea) ennead, enneagon
ens- sword Latin ensis
eo-, eos-, eoso- dawn, east Greek Ἠώς/Ἕως Eocene
epi-, ep- upon Greek ἐπί (epi) epicenter, epoch
epistem- knowledge or science Greek ἐπιστήμη (epistēmē) epistemic
equ-, -iqu- even, level Latin aequus equal,
equ- horse Latin equus Equestrian
erg- work Greek έργον (ergon) ergonomics
err- stray Latin errare aberration, errant
erythr(o)- red Greek ἐρυθρός (eruthros) erythrocyte
eso- within Greek ἔσω (esō) esoteric
etho-, eth-, ethi- custom, habit Greek ἦθος (ēthos) ethology
ethm- sieve Greek ἠθμός (hethmos); ἤθειν (hethein) ethmoid
ethn- people, race, tribe, nation Greek ἔθνος (ethnos) ethnic, ethnarch
etym(o)- true Greek ἔτυμος (etumos) etymology
eu- well Greek εὖ (eu) euphoria
eur- wide Greek εὐρύς (eurus) Europe
ex-, e-, ef- from, out of Latin ex exclude, extrude, extend
exo- outside Greek ἔξω exothermic
exter-, extra- outer Latin externus exterior
extrem- outermost, utmost Latin extremus extremity, extremophile


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
f-, fat- say, speak Latin fari, fatus fate, infant, preface
fab- bean Latin faba faba bean
fac-, -fic-, fact, -fect- make Latin facere, factus defect, factory, manufacture
falc- sickle Latin falx, falcis falciform
fall-, -fell-, fals- deceive Latin fallere, falsus falsity, infallibility
fallac- false Latin fallax, fallacis fallacy
famili- a close attendant Latin famulus familiarity
fant- to show Greek φαντάζω fantasy
fasc- bundle Latin fascis fasciculation
fatu- foolish, useless Latin fatuus fatuous, infatuation
feder- treaty, agreement, contract, league, pact Latin foedus, foederis confederation, federal
fel- cat Latin feles, felis Felinae, feline
felic- happy, merry Latin felix, felicis felicity
fell- suck Latin fellare fellation
femin- women, female Latin femina femininity
femor- thigh Latin femur, femoris femoral
fend-, fens- prevent Latin fendere, -fensus defend, offense
fenestr- window Latin fenestra defenestration
fer- carry Latin ferre reference, transfer
feroc- fierce Latin ferox, ferocis ferocity
ferr- iron Latin ferrum ferrous
fet- stink Latin fetere fetid, fetor
fic- fig Latin ficus Ficus
fid-, fis- faith, trust Latin fides, fidere, fisus confidence, fidelity
fil- thread Latin filum filament
fili- son Latin filius affiliation
fin- end Latin finis finish, final
find-, fiss- split Latin findere, fissus fission
firm- fix, settle Latin firmus, firmare confirmation, firmament
fistul- hollow, tube Latin fistula
fl- blow Latin flare, flatus flatulence, inflation
flacc- flabby Latin flaccus, flaccere flaccid
flav- yellow Latin flavus flavonoid
flect-, flex- bend Latin flectere, flexus flexor, inflection
flig-, flict- strike Latin fligere, flictus conflict, inflict
flor- flower Latin flos, floris floral, florid
flu-, flux- flow Latin fluere, fluxus effluent, fluency, influx
foc- hearth Latin focus focal
fod-, foss- dig Latin fodere, fossus fossil
foen- hay Latin faenum
foli- leaf Latin folium defoliant
font- spring Latin fons, fontis
for- bore Latin forare, foratus perforation
form- shape Latin forma conformity, deformity, formation
fornic- vault Latin fornix, fornicis fornication
fort- strong Latin fortis fortification
fove- shallow round depression Latin fovea fovea
frang-, -fring-, fract-, frag- break Latin frangere, fractus fracture, fragment, frangible, infringe
frater-, fratr- brother Latin frater fraternity
fric-, frict- rub Latin fricare, frictus dentifrice, friction
frig- cold Latin frigere frigid, frigorific
front- forehead Latin frons, frontis confront, frontal
fruct-, frug- fruit Latin frux, fructis fructose
fug-, fugit- flee Latin fugere centrifuge, fugitive, refuge
fum- smoke Latin fumus fume, fumigation
fund- bottom Latin fundus, fundare fundamentalism, profundity
fund-, fus- pour Latin fundere, fusus effusion, profusion
fung-, funct- do Latin fungi, functus function, fungibility
fur-, furt- steal Latin fur, furare furtive
furc- fork Latin furca bifurcation
fusc- dark Latin fuscus obfuscation


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
galact- milk Greek γάλα, γαλακτός (gala, galaktos) galactic
gastr- stomach Greek γαστήρ (gaster) gastric, gastroenterologist
ge(o)- earth Greek γη (gē), γεω- (geō) geology
gel- icy cold Latin gelum gelid
gen- race, kind Greek γένος genocide
ger-, gest- bear, carry Latin gerere, gestus digest, gestation
germin- sprout Latin germen, germinis germination
glabr- hairless Latin glaber glabrous
glaci- ice Latin glacies glacier
gladi- sword Latin gladius gladiator
glia- glue Greek glia glial
glob- sphere Latin globus global, globule
glori- glory Latin gloria glorify
glutin- glue Latin gluten, glutinis agglutination
grad-, -gred-, gress- walk, step, go Latin gradus, gradere, gressus grade, regress
gramm- letter Greek γραμμα (gramma) grammatic
gran- grain Latin granum granary, granule
grand- grand Latin grandis grandiloquous
graph- draw, write Greek γραφή (graphē) graphic, graphology
grat- thank, please Latin gratus gratitude
grav- heavy Latin gravis gravity
greg- flock Latin grex, gregis gregarious, segregation
gubern- govern, pilot Latin gubernare gubernatorial
gust- taste Latin gustus gusto
guttur- throat Latin guttur guttural
gymn- nude Greek γυμνός (gymnos) gymnasium


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
hab-, -hib-, habit-, -hibit- have Latin habere, habitus habit, prohibition
haem(o)- blood Greek αἷμα (haima) haemophilia
hal(o)- salt Greek ἅλς, άλας (hals, halos) halogen
hal-, -hel- breathe Latin halare, halatus anhelation, inhale
hapl(o)- simple, single Greek ἁπλοῦς (haplous) haploid
haur-, haust- draw Latin haurire, haustus exhaustion
heli(o)- sun Greek ἥλιος helium, heliotrope
hemi- half Greek ἥμισυς (hemisus) hemisphere
hen- one Greek ἕν (hen) henad, hyphen
hendec- eleven Greek ἕνδεκα (hendeka) hendecagon
hept- seven Greek επτά (hepta) heptagon, heptathlon
her-, hes- cling Latin haerere, haesus adhesive, coherent
herb- grass Latin herba herbicide
hered- heir Latin heres, heredis heredity
herp- creep Greek ἕρπω (herpo) herpetology
heter(o)- different, other Greek ἕτερος (heteros) heterodox
heur- find Greek εὑρίσκω heuristic
hex- six Greek ἕξ (hex) hexagon
hibern- wintry Latin hibernus hibernation
hiem- winter Latin hiems hiemal
hipp(o)- horse Greek ἵππος (hippos) hippodrome
hirsut- hairy Latin hirtus, hirsutus hirsute
hispid- bristly Latin hispidus hispidity
histri- actor Latin histrionic
hod- way Greek ὁδός (hodos) cathode, hodometer, herpolhode
hol(o)- whole Greek ὅλος (holos) holistic
hom(o)- same Greek ὁμός (homos) homosexual
homeo- like Greek ὅμοιος (homoios) homeostasis
homin- human Latin homo, hominis hominid
homal- even, flat Greek ὁμαλός (homalos) anomalous
honor- esteem Latin honos, honoris honorable
horm- that which excites Greek ὁρμή (horme) hormone
hort(i)- garden Latin hortus, horti horticulture
hospit- host Latin hospes, hospitis hospitality
host- enemy Latin hostis hostile
hum- ground Latin humus, humare exhumation, inhume
hyal- glass Greek ὕαλος (hualos) hyaline, hyaloid
hydr(o)- water Greek ὕδωρ hydrology, hydrologist, Hydrogen, Hydrate, dehydrate, Hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydraulic, Hydrolysis, hydrous, hydrophilic
hygr- wet Greek υγρός (hugros) hygrometer
hyo- U-shaped Greek ὑοειδής hyoid
hyp(o)- under Greek ὑπό (hupo) hypothermia
hyper- above, over Greek ὑπέρ (huper)
hypn- sleep Greek ὕπνος (hupnos) hypnosis
hyster- later Greek ὕστερος (husteros) hysteresis


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ichth- fish Greek ιχθύς (ichthus) ichthyology
icos- twenty Greek είκοσι (eikosi) icosagon, icosahedron
id(o)- shape Greek εἶδος (eidos) idol
ide(o)- idea; thought Greek ιδέα (idea) ideology, ideogram
idi(o)- personal Greek ἴδιος (idios) idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ign- fire Latin ignis igneous, ignition
in- (1), im- in, on Latin in invite, incur, intend
in- (2), il-, im-, ir- in, un- (negation) Latin in- illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
infra- under Latin infra infrastructure
insul- island Latin insula insular, insulation
inter- among, between Latin inter (preposition) – among, between intermission, intercollegiate, intercourse
intra- within Latin intra
irasc-, irat- be angry Latin irasci irascible, irate
is(o)- equal, the same Greek ίσος (isos) isomorphic, isometric, isoceles
iter- again Latin iterum, iterare iteration
itiner- route, way Latin iter, itineris – march, journey itinerary


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
jac- lie Latin jacēre "to be thrown" adjacent
jac- (originally IAC), -ject- cast, throw Latin iacio, iacere, ieci, iectus – "to throw" (and cognates thereof) eject, interject, ejaculate, trajectory
janu- door Latin janua janitor
joc- joke Latin jocus jocularity
jug- yoke Latin jugare, jugum conjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct- join Latin jungere, junctus conjunction, juncture
junior- younger Latin junior juniority
jus-, jur-, judic- (originally IVS) law, justice Latin ius, iuris; iudex, iudicis justice, jury, judge
juv-, jut- help Latin juvare, jutus adjutant
juven- young, youth Latin juvenis juvenile, rejuvenate
juxta- beside, near Latin juxta juxtaposition


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
kil(o)- thousand Greek χίλιοι (chilioi) kilogram, kilometer, kilobyte
kine- movement, motion Greek κινέω (kineo) telekinesis, kinetic energy, kinesthetic
klept- steal Greek κλέπτης (kleptēs) kleptomania
kudo- glory Greek κῦδος (kudos) kudos


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
lab-, laps- slide, slip Latin labi, lapsus elapse, relapse
labi- lip Latin labia, labiae bilabial, labial
labor- toil Latin labor collaboration, elaboration
lacer- tear Latin lacer laceration
lacrim- cry, tears Latin lacrima "tear" lacrimal, lacrimous
lact- milk Latin lac, lactis, lactare lactate, lactation, lactose
lamin- layer, slice Latin lamina laminate, lamination
lamp- shine Greek λαμπάς lampas "torch" lamp
lapid- stone Latin lapis, lapidis lapidary
larg- large Latin largus enlargement
larv- ghost, mask Latin larva larva, larvae, larval
lat(i)- broad, wide Latin latus latitude
later- side Latin latus, lateris bilateral
laud-, laus- praise Latin laudere laud
lav- wash Latin lavare lavatory
lax- not tense Latin laxus, laxare laxative, relaxation
led-, les- hurt Latin laedere, laesus lesion
leg- law Latin lex, legis, legare legal, legislative
leio- smooth Greek λείος leios leiomyoma
leni- gentle Latin lenis, lenire leniency
leon- lion Latin leo, leonis "lion" Leo, leonine, Leopold
lep- flake, scale Greek λέπις lepis Lepidoptera
leps- grasp, seize Greek λήψης lepsis epilepsy
leuc(o)-, leuk(o)- white Greek λευκός leukos leucocyte
lev- lift, light Latin levis "light" (in weight), levare elevator, levitation
liber- free Latin liber, liberare liberation
libr- book Latin liber, libri library
lig- bind Latin ligare, ligatus ligament, ligature
lin- line Latin linea linearity, line
lingu- language, tongue Latin lingua bilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict- leave Latin linquere, lictus relict, relinquish
lip(o)- fat Greek λίπος lipos lipolysis
liter- letter Latin littera alliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, obliterate
lith(o)- stone Greek λίθος lithos "stone" lithosphere, megalith, monolith, Neolithic Era
loc- place Latin locus local, location
log- thought, word, speech Greek λόγος logos "word" logic, monologue, morphological
long- long Latin longus elongate, longitude
loqu-, locut- speak Latin loqui allocution, eloquence
luc- bright, light Latin lux, lucis light Lucifer (bearer of light)
lud-, lus- play Latin ludere, lusus allude, illusion
lumin- light Latin lumen, luminis illumination, luminous
lun- moon Latin luna lunar, lunatic


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
macro- long Greek μακρός (makros) macron
magn- great, large Latin magnus magnanimous, magnificent
maj- greater Latin major, majus majesty, majority, majuscule
mal- bad, wretched, Latin malus malfeasance, malicious, malignancy, malodorous
mamm- breast Latin mamma mammal, mammary gland
man- flow Latin manare emanationism, immanant
man- stay Latin manēre, mansus immanence, permanent, remanence
mand- hand Latin mandāre, mandatus mandate, remand
mania crazy Greek μανία kleptomania, maniac
manu- hand Latin manus manual, manuscript
mar- sea Latin mare, maris marine, maritime
mater-, matr- mother Latin mater, matris matriarch, matrix
maxim- greatest Latin maximus maximal
medi-, -midi- middle Latin medius, mediare median, medieval
meg- great, large Greek μέγας (megas) megaphone
mei- less Greek μείον (meiōn) meiosis
melan- black, dark Greek μέλας (melas) Melanesia, melanoma
melior- better Latin melior amelioration
mell- honey Latin mel, mellis mellifluous
memor- remember Latin memor memorial
mening- membrane Greek μενινξ (meninx) meningitis
men(o)- moon Greek μήν (men) menopause, menstruation
ment- mind Latin mens, mentis demented, mentality
mer- part Greek μέρος (meros) polymer
merc- reward, wages, hire Latin merx, mercis mercantile, merchant
merg-, mers- dip, plunge Latin mergere emerge, immersion
mes- middle Greek μέσος (mesos) mesolithic, mesozoic
meter-, metr- measure Greek μέτρον (metron) metric, thermometer
meta- above, among, beyond Greek μετά (meta) metaphor, metaphysics
mic- grain Latin mica micelle
micr(o)- small Greek μικρός (mikros) microphone, microscope
migr- wander Latin migrare emigrant, migrate
milit- soldier Latin miles, militis military, militia
mill- thousand Latin mille millennium, million
millen- thousand each Latin milleni millenary
mim- repeat Greek μίμος (mimos) mime, mimic
min- jut Latin minere prominent
min- less, smaller Latin minor, minus minority, minuscule
mir- wonder, amazement Latin miror, mirari, miratus sum admire, miracle, mirror
mis- hate Greek μῖσος (misos) misandry, misogyny
misce-, mixt- mix Latin miscere, mixtus miscellaneous, mixture
mit- thread Greek μίτος (mitos) mitochondrion
mitt-, miss- send Latin mittere, missus intermittent, missionary, transmission
mne- memory Greek μνήμη (mnēmē) mnemonic
mol- grind Latin mola, molere, molitus molar
moll- soft Latin mollis emollient, mollify
mon(o)- one Greek μόνος (monos) monism, monolith, monotone
monil- string of beads Latin monile Moniliformida
mont- mountain Latin mons, montis Montana
morph- form, shape Greek μορφή (morphe) anthropomorphism, morpheme, morphology
mort- death Latin mors, mortis immortal, mortality, mortuary
mov-, mot- move, motion Latin movere, motus mobile, momentum, motor, move
mulg-, muls- milk Latin mulgere emulsion
mult(i)- many, much Latin multus multiple, multiplex, multitude
mur- wall Latin murus, muri immured, mural
mus- thief Latin mus, muris mouse
musc- fly Latin musca, muscae Muscicapidae, Muscidae
mut- change Latin mutare mutation
my- mouse Greek Μυς (mus) musophobia
myri- countless, ten thousand Greek μύριος (murios) myriad
myth- story Greek μῦθος (muthos) mythic, mythology
myx- slime Greek μύξα (muxa)
myz- suck Greek


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
nar- nostril Latin naris
narc- numb Greek νάρκη (narkē) narcosis, narcotic
narr- tell Latin narrare narrative
nas- nose Latin nasus nasal
nasc-, nat- born Latin nascere, natus nascent, native
naut- ship Greek (naus) astronaut
nav- ship Latin navis naval
ne(o)- new Greek νέος (neos) neologism
necr(o)- dead Greek νεκρός (nekros) necrophobia
nect-, nex- join, tie Latin nectere, nexus connection
necto-, nect- swimming Greek νεκτος nektos nectopod
neg- say no Latin negare negative
nema- hair Greek νήμα nematode
nemor- grove, woods Latin nemus, nemoris nemoral
nephr- kidney Greek νεφρός (nephros) nephritis
nes- island Greek νήσος (nesos) Polynesia
neur- nerve Greek νευρών (neuron) neurology, neurosurgeon
nict- wink Latin nictari nictation
nigr- black Latin niger denigrate
nihil- nothing Latin nihilum annihilation
noct- night Latin nox, noctis nocturnal, noctambulist
nod- knot Latin nodus node, nodule
nom- arrangement, law Greek νόμος (nomos)
nomad- those who let pasture herds Greek νομάς, νομάδος (nomas, nomados) nomadic
nomin- name Latin nomen, nominis nomination
non- not Latin non none
non- ninth Latin nonus nonary
nonagen- ninety each Latin nonageni nonagenary
nonagesim- ninetieth Latin nonagesimus nonagesimal
not- letter, note, paper Latin notare notaphily
noth- spurious
noto- back, south Greek νότος (notos)
nov- nine Latin novem novennial
nov- new Latin novus innovation, nova
noven- nine each Latin noveni novenary
novendec- nineteen Latin novendecim
nox-, noc- harmful Latin noxa noxious
nu- nod Latin nuere innuendo
nub- Latin nubes, nubis nubile
nuc- nut Latin nux, nucis nucleus
nuch- back of neck Latin nucha nuchal cord
nud- naked Latin nudus denude, nudity
null(i)- none Latin nullus nullify
numer- number Latin numerus numeral
-nunci- announce Latin nuntius pronunciation
nupti- Latin nuptial
nutri- nourish Latin nutrire nutrient


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
ob-, o-, oc-, os- against Latin ob obstinate, ostentatious, obstreperous
oct- eight Greek ὀκτώ (oktō) octagon, octahedron
oct- eight Latin octō octangular, octennial, octovir
octav- eighth Latin octāvus octaval
octogen- eighty each Latin octogeni octogenary
octogesim- eightieth Latin octogesimus octogesimal
octon- eight each Latin octoni octonary
ocul- eye Latin oculus, oculare ocular, oculus
od- path, way Greek ὁδός (hodos) anode, odometer
od- hate Latin odium odious
odont- tooth Greek ὀδούς, ὀδόντος (odous, odontos) odontology
odor- fragrant Latin odor odorous
oeco- house Greek οἶκος (oikos) ecology
oed- swollen Greek οἴδημα (oidēma) oedema
oen- wine Greek οἶνος (oinos) oenology
oesoph- gullet Greek οἰσοφάγος (oisophagos) oesophagus
ogdo- eighth Greek ὄγδοος (ogdoos)
-oid like Greek -οειδής (-oeidēs)
ole- oily Latin
olecran- skull of elbow Latin from Greek ὠλέκρανον (ōlekranon) olecranon
olig- few Greek ὀλίγος (oligos) oligarchy
oliv- olive Latin oliva
-oma cancer Greek -ωμα
omas- paunch Latin omasum omasum
oment- fat skin Latin omentum
omin- Latin omen, ominis ominous
omm- eye Greek ὄμμα (omma) ommatidium
omni- all Latin omnis omnipotence, omnivore
omo- shoulder Latin
omphal- navel Greek ὀμφαλός (omphalos) omphalectomy
oner- burden Latin onus, oneris onerous
onom- name Greek όνομα (onoma) onomatopoeia
ont- existing Greek ὄντος (ontos) ontogeny, ontology
-onym name Greek ὄνυμα (onuma) pseudonym
oo- egg Greek (oion) oocyte
opac- shady Latin opacus opacity
oper- work Latin opus, operis opera
opercul- little cover Latin operculum
ophi- snake Greek ὄφις (ophis)
ophthalm- eye Greek ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos) ophthalmology
opisth- behind Greek ὄπισθεν (opisthen) opisthosoma, opsimath
opoter- either Greek ὁπότερος (hopoteros)
opt- eye Greek ὀπτός optos optical
opt- choose Latin optare adopt, optional
optim- best Latin optimus optimum
or- mouth Latin os, oris oral, orator
orb- circle Latin orbis orbit
orch- testicle Greek ὄρχις (orchis) orchid
ordin- order Latin ōrdō, ordinis ordinal, ordinary
organ- organ, instrument, tool Greek ὄργανον (organon) organism
ori-, ort- eastern Latin oriri, ortus orient
orn- Latin ōrnāre adorn, ornament, ornate
ornith- bird Greek ὄρνις (ornis, ornithos) ornithology
orth(o)- straight Greek ὀρθός (orthos) orthodoxy, orthosis
oscill- swing Latin oscillum oscillation
oss(i)- bone Latin os, ossis
osteo- bone Greek ὀστοῦν (ostoun) osteoporosis
osti- entrance Latin ostium ostiole
ostrac- shell Greek ὄστρακον (ostrakon) ostracism
ot- ear Greek οὖς,ωτός (ous, ōtos) otology
ov- egg Latin ovum oval, ovule
ovi- sheep Latin ovis ovine
oxy- sharp, pointed Greek ὀξύς (oxus) oxymoron


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
pac- peace Latin pax, pacis pacifism
pach- thick Greek παχύς (pachus) pachydermata
paed- child Greek παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos) paediatric
pagin- page Latin pagina pagination
pal- stake Latin palus impale
palae-, pale- ancient, old Greek παλαιός (palaios) paleontology
palin- back Greek παλιν (palin) palindrome
pall- pale Latin pallere pallid, pallor
palli- mantle Latin pallium pallium
palm- palm Latin palma palmate
palustr(i)- in marshes Latin paluster palustral
pan-, pam- all Greek πᾶς, παντός (pas, pantos) pandemic
pand-, pans- spread Latin pandere, pansus expand, expansion
par(a)- beside, near Greek παρά (para) parallel, parameter
pariet- wall Latin paries, parietis parietal
part(i)- part Latin pars, partis partition
parthen(o)- maiden Greek παρθένος (parthenos) parthenogenesis
parv- little Latin parvus
pasc-, past- feed Latin pascere, pastus pasture, repast
pass- pace, step Latin passus
passer- sparrow Latin passer passeriform, passerine
pat- be open Latin patere patent
path- to feel, hurt Greek πάθος (pathos) pathetic, pathology
pati-, pass- suffer; feel; endure; permit Latin pati, passus passive, patient
patr(i)- father Latin pater, patris patriarch, patrilocal
pauc- few Latin paucus paucity
pav- Latin pavement
pecc- sin Latin peccare impeccable
pect- fixed Greek πηκτός (pēktos) pectic, pectin
pector- chest Latin pectus, pectoris pectoral
pecun- money Latin pecunia pecuniary
ped- child Greek παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos) pedagogy
ped- foot Latin pes, pedis pedal
pejor- worse Latin pejor pejorative
pel-, puls- drive Latin pellere propellent, propulsion
pen- almost Latin paene peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pend-, pens- hang Latin pendere suspend
penn-, pinn- feather Latin penna pennate
pent- five Greek πέντε (pente) pentagon
pentecost- fiftieth Greek (pentekostos) pentecostalism
pept- to digest Greek πέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein, peptos) peptic
per- thoroughly, through Latin per perfect, persistent
peran- across, beyond Greek
peri- around Greek περί perimeter, periscope
persic- peach Greek περσικός (persikos)
pessim- worst Latin pessimus pessimal
pet- strive towards Latin petere appetite, competition
petr- rock Greek πέτρα (petra) petroglyph
phaeo- dark Greek φαιός (phaios)
phag- eat Greek φαγεῖν (phagein) sarcophagus
phalang- close formation of troops, finger bones Greek φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx, phalangos) phalange(s)
phalar- having a patch of white Greek φάλαρος (phalāros)<ref>"phalaros" in LSJ</ref>
pharma- drug, medicine Greek φάρμακον pharmacy
phanero- visible Greek φανερός
pher- bear, carry Greek φέρω pheromone
philia- love, friendship Greek φιλια philosophy
phleg- heat Greek φλέγω Phlegmatics
phloe- tree bark Greek φλοιός (phloios) Phlobaphene
phob(ia)- fear Greek φόβος (phobos) hydrophobia
phon(o)- sound Greek φωνή (phone) microphone, phonograph
phor- carry, bearing, bearer Greek φόρος (phoros) metaphor
phos-, phot- light Greek φῶς photograph
phragm- fence Greek φράγμα (phragma) diaphragm
phren- diaphragm, mind Greek φρήν, φρενός (phrēn, phrenos) schizophrenia
phryn(o)- toad, toad-like Greek φρύνη (phrunē)
phyl- tribe Greek φύλων (phulon) phylum
phyll- leaf Greek φύλλων (phullon) chlorophyll
physa- bladder Greek φυσά, φούσκα (phusa, phouska)
phys- nature Greek φύση (physe) physics
phyt- plant Greek φυτών (phuton) neophyte
pic- pitch Latin pix, picis
pil- hair Latin
pin- pine Latin
ping-, pict- paint Latin pingere picture
pino- drink Greek πίνειν (pinein) pinocytosis
pir- pear Latin
pisc- fish Latin piscis Pisces
pis- pea Greek πίσος (pisos)
plac- plate, tablet Greek πλαξ, πλακός (plax, plakos)
plac- calm Latin placare, placatus placate
plac-, -plic- please Latin placēre, placitus placid
plagi- oblique Greek πλάγιος (plagios)
plan- flat Latin planus explanation, planar
plang- Latin plangere plangent
plas- mould Greek πλάθω (platho) plasma, plastic
platy- flat, broad Greek πλατύς (platus) platypus
plaud-, plaus- clap Latin plaudere, plausus applaud
ple-, plet- fill Latin plere complete, suppletive
pleb- people Latin plebs, plebis plebian
plect-, plex- plait Latin plectere, plexus perplex
plec- interwoven Greek πλέκω (pleko) Plectics
plen- full Latin plenus plenary
plesi- near Greek πλησίος (plēsios)
pleth- full Greek πλῆθος (plēthos) plethora
pleur- side Greek πλευρά pleura
plic- fold, braid Latin plicare, plicatus duplication, replicate
plinth- brick Greek πλίνθος (plinthos)
plor- Latin plorare implore
plu- rain Latin pluere
plum- feather Latin pluma plumage, plumate
plumb- lead Latin plumbum
plur- more Latin pluris plural
plurim- most Latin plurimus
plus- more Latin plus
pluvi- rain Latin pluvia pluvial
pneu- air, lung Greek πνεῦμα pneumatic
pod- foot Greek πούς, ποδός (pous, podos) podiatry, tripod
pogon(o)- beard Greek πώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn, pōgōnos) pogonotrophy
poie- make Greek ποιέω poiesis
pole-, poli- city Greek πόλις (polis) metropolis, politics
pol- pole Greek πόλος (polos) dipole, polar
pol- stake, pale Latin palus pole-vault
polem- war Greek πόλεμος (polemos) polemic
poli(o)- grey Greek πολιός (polios)
pollic- thumb Latin pollex, pollicis
pollin- Latin pollen, pollinis pollination
poly- many Greek πολύς (polus) polygon
pon-, posit- put Latin ponere, positus component, position, postpone
ponder- weight Latin pondus, ponderis ponderable
pont- bridge Latin pons, pontis pontoon
popul- people Latin populus population
por- passage Greek πόρος (poros) pore
porc- pig Latin porcus porcine, pork
porphyr- purple Greek πορφύρα (porphura) porphyrin
port- gate Latin porta portal
port- carry Latin portare, portatus export, transportation
post- after, behind Latin post posterior, postscript
pot- drink Latin potare potable
potam- river Greek ποταμός (potamos) Mesopotamia, hippopotamus
prasin- leek-green Greek πράσινος (prasinos) prasinous
prat- meadow Latin pratum
prav- crooked Latin pravus depravity
pre- before Latin prae previous
prec- pray Latin prex, precare deprecation
pred- Latin praedari predator
prehend-, prend- grasp Latin prehendere comprehend
prem-, -prim-, press- press Latin premere, pressus pressure
presb- old Greek πρέσβυς (presbus) Presbyterianism
preter- past Latin praeter preterite, pretermission
preti- price Latin pretium
prim- first Latin primus primary, primeval, primitive
prior- former Latin prior priority
priv- separate Latin privare, privatus deprivation
pro- before, in front of Greek πρό (pro)
pro- for, forward Latin pro propulsion
prob- try Latin probare probation
proct- anus Greek πρωκτός (proktos) proctology
propri- Latin proprius appropriate
pros(o)- forward Greek πρός (pros)
prot(o)- first Greek πρῶτος (prōtos) protoplasm
proxim- nearest Latin proximus proximity
prun- plum Latin prunus prune
psamma- sand Greek ψάμμος (psammos)
pseud(o)- false Greek ψεῦδος (pseudos) pseudonym
psil(o)- bare Greek ψιλός (psilos) epsilon
psych(o)- mind Greek ψυχη (psychē) psycho
psychr(o)- cold Greek ψυχρος (psuchros)
pter- wing, fern Greek πτερών (pteron) helicopter
pto- fall Greek πτώσης ptosis
ptyal- saliva Greek πτύον (ptyon)
ptych- fold, layer Greek πτυχή (ptuchē) triptych
pubi- sexually mature Latin pubic, pubescent
public- Latin publicus publication
pude- Latin pudere impudent
pugn- fight Latin pugnare pugnacious, repugnant
pulchr- beautiful Latin pulcher, pulchri pulchritude
pulmon- lung Latin pulmo, pulmonis pulmonary
pulver- dust Latin pulvis, pulveris pulverize
pung-, punct- prick Latin pungere puncture, pungent
puni- punish Latin punire punitive
pup- doll Latin pupa pupa, puppet
pur- pure Latin purus impure, purity
purg- Latin purgare expurgate, purgatory
purpur- purple Latin purpura
put- think Latin putāre compute, putative
pygo- rump Greek πύγηε (pugē)
pyl- gate Greek πυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn) pylon
pyr(o)- heat, fire Greek πύρ, πυρός (pur, puros) pyrolysis


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
quadr- four Latin quattuor quadrangle, quadrillion
quadragen- forty each Latin quadrageni quadragenary
quadragesim- fortieth Latin quadragesimus quadragesimal
quart- fourth Latin quartus quartary, quartile
quasi- as if Latin quasi
quatern- four each Latin quaterni quaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass- shake Latin quatere
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit- search, seek Latin quaerere Inquisition, query
qui- rest Latin quies quiet
quin- five each Latin quini quinary
quindecim- fifteenth Latin quindecimus quindecimal
quinden- fifteen each Latin quindeni quindenary
quinque- five Latin quinque quinquennium
quint- fifth Latin quintus quintary, quintile
quot- how many, how great Latin quota, quotient


Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
rad-, ras- scrape, shave Latin radere, rasus abrade, abrasion
radi- beam, spoke Latin radius, radiare radiance, radiation
radic- root Latin rādix, rādīcis eradicate, radical
ram- branch Latin rāmus ramification, ramose
ran- frog Latin rana Rana
ranc- rancidness, grudge, bitterness Latin rancere rancid, rancor
rap- turnip Latin rapum rapeseed
raph- seam Greek ῤαφή (rhaphē)
rar- Latin rarus rarity
rauc- harsh, hoarse Latin raucus raucous
re-, red- again, back Latin re- recede, redact
reg-, -rig-, rect- straight Latin regere, rectus dirigible, erect, erection, rectum
rem- oar Latin remus bireme, trireme
ren- kidney Latin renes renal
rep-, rept- crawl, creep Latin repere, reptus reptile
ret- net Latin rete reticle, retina
retro- backward, behind Latin retro retrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
rhabd- rod Greek ῥάβδος (rhabdos) rhabdoid, rhabdom
rhach-, rach- spine Greek ῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rhachis) rhachiodont
rhag- tear, rent Greek ῥαγίζω rhagades
rhe- flow Greek ῥεῖν (rhein) rheostat
rhig- chill Greek ῥῖγος (rhigos) rhigosaurus
rhin- nose, snout Greek ῥίς, ῥινός (rhis, rhinos) rhinoplasty
rhiz- root Greek ῥίζα (rhiza) rhizome
rhod(o)- rose Greek ῥόδον (rhodon) rhododendron
rhomb- spinning top Greek ῥόμβος (rhombos) rhombus
rhynch- snout Greek ῥύγχος Rhynchobatus
rid-, ris- laugh Latin ridere, risus derision, ridicule
robor- oak, strength Latin robur, roboris corroboration
rod-, ros- gnaw Latin rodere, rosus corrode, erosion, rodent
rog- ask Latin rogare interrogation
rostr- beak, prow Latin rostrum rostrum
rot- wheel Latin rota, rotare rotation
ruber-, rubr- red Latin ruber rubric, ruby
rug- wrinkle Latin ruga, rugare corrugation
rumin- throat Latin rumen, ruminis rumination
rump-, rupt- break Latin rumpere, ruptus eruption, rupture
rur- country Latin rus, ruris rural


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
sacchar- sugar Greek σάκχαρον (sakcharon) saccharin
sacr-, secr- sacred Latin sacer, sacrare consecrate, sacrament
sagac- Wise Latin sagax, sagacis sagacity
sagitt- arrow Latin sagitta sagittal plane, Sagittaria
sal- salt Latin sal, salis, salere salinity
sali-, -sili-, salt- jump Latin salire, saltus resilient, salient, saltus
salic- willow Latin salix, salicis salicin
salv- save Latin salvare salvation
san- healthy Latin sanus insane, sanity
sanct- holy Latin sancire sanctify, sanctuary
sanguin- blood Latin sanguis, sanguinis sanguine
sapi-, -sipi- taste; wise Latin sapere sapient
sapon- soap Latin sapo, saponis saponification
sarc(o)- flesh Greek σάρξ (sarx, sarkos) sarcophagus
sativ- cultivated Latin sativus
saur- lizard, reptile Greek σαῦρος (sauros) dinosaur
saxum rock Latin saxum
scab- scratch Latin scabere scabies
scal- ladder, stairs Latin scala scale
scalen- uneven Greek σκαληνός skalenos scalene
scand-, -scend-, scans-, -scens- climb Latin scandere ascend
scaph- anything hollow, bowl, ship Greek scaphoid
schem- plan Greek σχῆμα (schema) schematic
schis- split Greek σχίσμα (schisma) schism
sci- know Latin scire prescient, science
scind-, sciss- split Latin scindere scissors
scler- hard Greek σκληρός (sklēros) scleroderma, sclerosis
scoli- crooked Greek σκολιός (skolios) scoliosis
scop-, scopy, scept- look at, examine, view, observe Greek σκοπός (skopos) kaleidoscope, stethoscope
scrib-, script- write Latin scribere inscribe, scripture
sculp- carve Latin sculpere sculpture
scut- shield Latin scutum scute
scyph- cup Greek χούφτα (choyphta) Scyphozoa
se-, sed- apart Latin se secede, sedition
seb- tallow Latin sebum sebaceous, sebum
sec-, sect-, seg- cut Latin secare secant, section, segment
sed- settle, calm Latin sedare sedative
sed-, -sid-, sess- sit Latin sedere reside, sediment, session, supersede
sedec- sixteen Latin sedecim sedecimal
seget- in cornfields Latin segetum
sei- shake Greek σεισμός (seismos) seismograph
selen- moon Greek σελήνη (selene) Selene
sell- saddle, seat Latin sella sella turcica
sema- sign Greek σῆμα (sema) semantics, semaphore
semi- half Latin semis semi-final
semin- seed Latin semen, seminis insemination
sen- old man Latin senex, senis senator, senility
sen- six each Latin seni senary
senti-, sens- feel Latin sentire, sensus consensus
sept- fence, partition, enclosure Latin saeptum transept
sept- seven Latin septem septennium
septen- seven each Latin septeni septenary
septim- seventh Latin septimus
septuagen- seventy each Latin septuageni septuagenary
septuagesim- seventieth Latin septuagesimus septuagesimal
septuagint- seventy Latin septuaginta Septuagint
sequ-, secut- follow Latin sequere consecutive, sequence
ser(o)- any body fluid Latin serum serous
ser(ot)- late Latin serus
serp- crawl Latin serpere serpent
serr- saw, saw-toothed Latin serra, serrare serration
serv- save, protect, serve Latin servare conservation
sesqui- one and a half Latin sesqui sesquicentennial
set- hair Latin seta
sever- stern, strict, serious Latin severus severity
sex-, se- six Latin sex semester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen- sixty each Latin sexageni sexagenary
sexagesim- sixtieth Latin sexagesimus sexagesimal
sext- sixth Latin sextus sextant
sibil- hiss Latin sibilus, sibilare sibilance
sicc- dry Latin siccus desiccation
sider- star Latin sidus, sideris sidereal
sign- sign Latin signum design, designate, signal
sil- quiet or still Latin silere silence
silv- forest Latin silva silviculture
simi- ape, monkey Latin simia simian
simil- likeness, trust, group Latin similis assimilate, similarity
simul- an imitating, feigning Latin simulare simulation
singul- one each Latin singuli singular
sinistr- left Latin sinister, sinistri sinistral
sinu- (to draw) a line Latin sinuare insinuate
sinus- hollow, bay Latin sinus
siph(o)- tube Greek σίφων (siphon) siphon
sist- cause to stand Latin sistere consist
sito- food, grain, wheat Greek σίτος (sitos) sitology
soci- group Latin socius, sociare associate, social
sol- sun Latin sol solar
sol- comfort, soothe Latin solare consolation
solen- pipe, channel Greek σωλήν (solen) solenoid
solv-, solut- loosen, set free Latin solvere solution
soma- body Greek σῶμα (sōma) somatic
somn- sleep Latin somnus insomnia
somni- dream Latin somnium
son- sound Latin sonus resonance
soph- Wise Greek σοφός (sophos) sophist
sorb-, sorpt- suck Latin sorbere absorb, absorption
sord- dirt Latin sordes, sordere sordid
soror- sister Latin soror sorority
spati- space Latin spatium spatial
spec-, -spic-, spect- look Latin specere conspicuous, inspection, specimen
spect- watch, look at Latin spectare spectator
specul- observe Latin speculari speculation
sper- hope Latin spes, sperare desperation, esperance
sperm- seed Greek σπέρμα (sperma) angiosperm
sphen(o)- wedge Greek σφήν (sphen)
spher- ball Greek σφαῖρα (sphaira) spheroid, sphere
sphinct- closing Greek σφίγγα sphincter
spic- spike Latin spica spicule
spin- thorn Latin spina spine
spir- breathe Latin spirare respiration
spond-, spons- a surety, guarantee; give assurance, promise solemnly Latin spondere, sponsus
spondyl- vertebra
spu-, sput- spew, spit Latin spuere sputum
squal- scaly, dirty, filthy Latin squalere squalid, squalor
squam- scale Latin squama
squarros- spreading at tips Latin
st- stand Latin stare, status stable, station, status, statistic, statue, establish
stagn- pool of standing water Latin stagnare stagnant
stalact- Greek σταλακτίτης (stalaktites) stalactite
stalagm- Greek σταλαγμός (stalagmos) stalagmite
stann- tin Latin stannum stannous
statu-, -stitu- stand Latin statuere institution, statute
stea- fat, tallow Greek στέαρ, στέατος (stear, steatos) stearic acid
steg- covering Greek steganography
stell- star Latin stella constellation, stellar
sten- narrow Greek στενός (stenos) stenography
stere- solid Greek στερεός (stereos)
stern-, strat- spread, strew Latin sternere, stratus stratify
stern- breastbone Greek στέρνον (sternon) sternum
stich- line, row Greek στίχος (stichos)
stig- Greek στίγμα stigma
still- drip Latin stilla, stillare distillation
stimul- goad, rouse, excite Latin stimulus stimulate
stingu-, stinct- apart Latin stinguere distinction, distinguish
stoch- aim Greek στόχος stochastic
stom- mouth Greek στόμα
strept- twisted Greek στρεπτός (streptos)
strig- compress Latin strix, strigis strigogyps
string-, strict- upright, stiff Latin stringere, strictus stringent
strigos- having stiff bristles Latin
stroph- turning Greek στροφή (strophe) apostrophe
stru-, struct- Latin struere construction, construe
stud- dedication Latin studere student
stup- wonder Latin stupere stupor
styl- column, pillar Greek στῦλος (stulos) stylus
su-, sut- sew Latin suere suture
sui- self Latin suicide
suad-, suas- urge Latin suadere, suasus persuasion
suav- sweet Latin suavis suave
sub-, su-, sus- below Latin sub submerge
subter- Latin subter subterfuge
sucr- sugar Latin sucrose
sud- sweat Latin sudare sudoriferous
sulc- furrow Latin sulcus sulcus
sum-, sumpt- take Latin sumere assumption, consume
super- above, over Latin super supersede
supin- lying back Latin supinus supination
supra- above, over Latin supra supranationalism
surd- deaf Latin surdus absurdity
surg- rise Latin surgere resurgent
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym- with Greek σύν (sun) symbol, system, synonym, symmetry
syring- pipe Greek σύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, syringos) syringe


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
tac-, -tic- be silent Latin tacere, tacitus reticent, tacit
tach- swift Greek ταχύς (tachus) tachometer
taenia- ribbon Greek ταινία (tainia)
tal- ankle Latin talus
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag- touch Latin tangere, tactus contact, tangent
tapet- carpet Latin tapete, tapetis
tard- slow Latin tardus retard, tardy, tardigrade
tars- ankle Greek ταρσός (tarsos, a flat basket) tarsal
taur- bull Greek ταῦρος (tauros) Minotaur
taur- bull Latin taurus Taurus
tax- arrangement, order Greek τάξης (taxis) taxonomy
techn- Greek τέχνη (techne) technology
teg-, tect- cover Latin tegere, tectus protection
tele- far, end Greek τῆλε telephone, telescope, telegram
teleo- complete Greek τέλος teleology
temno- cut Greek τέμνω
tempor- time Latin tempus, temporis temporary, temporal.
ten-, -tin-, tent- hold Latin tenere, tentus continent, tenacious
tend-, tens- stretch Latin tendere, tensus extend, extension
tenu- slender, thin Latin tenuis attenuate, tenuous
tep- be warm Latin tepere tepid
ter-, trit- rub Latin terere, tritus attrition, contrite
teret- rounded Latin teres, teretis
terg-, ters- wipe Latin tergere, tersus detergent
termin- Latin terminus determine, termination
tern- three each Latin terni ternary, ternion
terr- dry land Latin terra terrace, terrain, terracotta
terti- third Latin tertius tertian, tertiary
test- witness Latin testis testimony
tetr- four Greek τετρά (tetra-) tetrahedron
tex-, text- weave Latin texere, textus texture, textile
thalam- chamber, bed Greek θάλαμος (thalamos)
thalass- sea Greek θάλασσα (thalassa) Panthalassa
than- death Greek θάνατος (thanatos) euthanasia
the- put Greek τίθημι (tithemi) theme, thesis thesaurus
-theca case Greek θήκη Bibliotheca
thel(o)- Greek θηλή
the(o)-, thus- god Greek θεός (theos) theology, enthusiasm
theori- Greek θεωρία theorem, theory
therm- heat Greek θερμός (thermos) thermometer, endotherm
thero- beast, animal Greek θήρ, θηρός theropod
thymo- mood Greek θυμός dysthymia
thyreo- large shield Greek θυρεός thyroid
tim- be afraid Latin timere timid
ting-, tinct- moisten Latin tingere, tinctus tincture
tom- cut Greek τομή (tome), τόμος (tomos) ectomy, atom, tome
ton- stretch Greek τόνος (tonos) tone, isotonic
top- place Greek τόπος (topos) topic, topography
torn- cut Latin from Greek tornare < τόρνος (tornos)
torpe- numb Latin torpere torpor
torqu-, tort- twist Latin torquere, tortus extortion, torque, torture
tot- all, whole Latin totus total
tox(o)- arrow, bow Greek τόξον (toxon)
trab- beam Latin trabs, trabis trabeculae
trachy- rough Greek τραχύς (trachus) trachea
trag(o)- goat Greek τράγος (tragos) tragus
trah-, tract- pull/draw Latin trahere, tractus subtrahend, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran- across Latin trans tradition, transcend, transportation
trapez- four-sided, table Greek τράπεζα (trapeza) trapezoid trapezius
traum- wound Greek τραῦμα (trauma) trauma, traumatic
trecent- three hundred Latin trecenti trecentennial
tredec- thirteen Latin tredecim
treiskaidek- thirteen Greek τρεισκαίδεκα triskaidekaphobia
trem- tremble Latin tremere tremor
trema- hole Greek τρῆμα (trēma) trematode
tri- three Greek τρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria) triad, trigon, tripod
tri- three Latin tres triangle, trivia, triumvirate
tricen- thirty each Latin triceni tricenary
tricesim-, trigesim- thirtieth Latin tricesimus trigesimal
trich- hair Greek θρίξ, τριχός (thrix, trichos) trichopathophobia, peritrichous
trin- three each Latin trini trinity
troch- wheel Greek τροχός trochlea
trop- turning Greek τρόπος (tropos) tropic
troph- feed, grow Greek τροφός pogonotrophy, trophic, dystrophy
trud-, trus- thrust Latin trudere, trusus extrusion, intrude
tuss- cough Latin tussis, tussire pertussis
tympan- drum Greek τύμπανον (tumpanon) tympani
typ- stamp, model Greek τύπος (tupos)


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
uber- fruitful Latin uber, uberare exuberant
ulig- in marshes Latin
ulo- wooly Greek
ultim- farthest Latin ultimus ultimate
ultra- beyond Latin ultra ultrasonic
umbilic- navel Latin umbilicus umbilical
umbr- shade, shadow Latin umbra penumbra, umbrella
un-, uni- one Latin unus, unius unary, union
unc- hooked Latin uncus uncinate
unci- ounce, twelfth Latin uncia uncial
und- wave Latin unda abundant, undulate
undecim- eleventh Latin undecimus undecimal
unden- eleven each Latin undeni undenary
ungui- claw, nail Latin unguis
ungul- claw, hoof Latin ungula ungulate
ur-, uro- tail Greek οὐρά (oura) uroid, uroborus
ur-, uro- urine Greek οὖρον (ouron) urology
urb- city Latin urbs, urbis urban
urg- work Latin urgere urgent
urs- bear Latin ursus Ursa Major, ursine
ut-, us- use Latin uti, usus usual, utility
uv- grape Latin uva uvea
uxor- wife Latin uxor uxoricide


Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
vac- empty Latin vacare vacancy, vacation, vacuum
vad-, vas- go Latin vadere evade, pervasive
vag- wander Latin vagus, vagare vague, vagabond
van- empty, vain, idle Latin vanus vanity
vap- lack (of) Latin vapor evaporation, vapid, vaporize
veh-, vect- carry Latin vehere, vectus vehicle, vector
vel- veil Latin velum revelation, velate
vell-, vuls- pull Latin vellere, vulsus convulsion
veloc- quick Latin velox, velocis velocity
ven- vein Latin vena venosity
ven- hunt Latin venari venison
ven-, vent- come Latin venire advent, convention
vend- sell Latin vendere vendor, vending
vener- respectful Latin venus veneration, venereal
vent- wind Latin ventus ventilation
ventr- belly Latin venter ventral
ver- true Latin verus verify, verity
verb- word Latin verbum verbal, verbatim, verbosity
verber- whip Latin verber reverberation
verm- worm Latin vermis vermiform
vern- spring Latin ver, vernus vernal
vert-, vers- turn Latin vertere, versus convert, inversion, invert, vertical
vesic- bladder Latin vesica vesical
vesper- evening, western Latin vespera vesperal
vest- clothe, garment Latin vestis divest, vest
vestig- follow, track Latin vestigium investigate
vet- forbid Latin vetare veto
veter- old Latin vetus, veteris inveterate, veteran
vi- way Latin via deviate, obvious, via
vic- change Latin vicis vice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen- twenty Latin viceni vicenary
vicesim-, vigesim- twentieth Latin vecesimus vicesimary, vigesimal
vid-, vis- see Latin videre, visus video, vision
vil- cheap Latin vilis vile, vilify
vill- shaggy hair, velvet Latin villus villiform
vin- wine Latin vinum vinous
vinc-, vict- conquer Latin vincere, victus invincible, victory
vir- man Latin vir virility
vir- green Latin virere virid, viridian
visc- thick Latin viscum viscosity
viscer- organs of the body cavity Latin viscus, visceris visceral
vit- life Latin vita vital
vitell- yolk Latin vitellus
viti- fault Latin vitium vice, vitiate
vitr- glass Latin vitrum vitreous
viv- live Latin vivere revive, survive, vivid
voc- voice Latin vox, vocis vocal, vocation, provocative
vol- fly Latin volare volatility
vol- wish Latin velle volition
volv-, volut- roll Latin volvere, volutus convolution, revolve
vom- discharge Latin vomere vomit
vor-, vorac- swallow Latin vorare, vorax devour, voracious
vov-, vot- vow Latin vovere, votus votive
vulg- common, crowd Latin vulgus divulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner- wound Latin vulnus, vulneris vulnerable
vulp- fox Latin vulpes, vulpis vulpine

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Root Meaning in English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
xanth- yellow Greek ξάνθος (xanthos) xanthogenic
xen- foreign Greek ξένος (xenos) xenophobia
xer- dry Greek ξηρός (xēros) xerography
xiph- sword Greek ξίφος (xiphos) xiphoid
xyl- wood Greek ξύλον (xulon) xylophone

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Root Meaning In English Origin Language Etymology (Root Origin) English Examples
-zo- animal, living being Greek ζῷον (zōion) protozoa, zoo, zoology
zon- belt, girdle Greek ζώνη (zōnē) zone
zyg- yoke Greek ζυγός (zugon) heterozygous, zygote
zym- ferment Greek ζύμη (zumē) enzyme, lysozyme

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