Gamma
From Textus Receptus
Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ; Greek Γάμμα) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Gimel . Letters that arose from Gamma include the Roman C and G and the Cyrillic letters Ge Г and Ghe Ґ.
Contents 
Uses
Greek
In isolation
In Modern Greek, it represents either a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ or a voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/. In Ancient Greek, it represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/.
Before velars
Before other velars (κ, χ k, kh), it represents a velar nasal /ŋ/ in Modern as well as Ancient Greek. A double gamma γγ represents the sequence /ŋɡ/ (phonetically varying [ŋɡ~ɡ]) or /ŋɣ/.
International Phonetic Alphabet
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, lowercase gamma (ɣ) represents the voiced velar fricative. A lowercase gamma that lies above the baseline rather than crossing it (ɤ) represents the closemid back unrounded vowel.
Math and science
Lower case
The lowercase letter γ is used as a symbol for:
 gamma radiation in nuclear physics
 surface energy in materials science
 the Lorentz factor in theory of relativity
 The heat capacity ratio Cp/Cv in thermodynamics
 The activity coefficient in thermodynamics
 The gyromagnetic ratio in electromagnetism
 gamma oscillation in neuroscience
 Gamma Motor Neurons in neuroscience
 antibiotic concentration (1 γ = 1 µg/ml) in microbiology
 the power by which the luminance of an image is increased in gamma correction
 The Euler–Mascheroni constant
 In mechanical engineering,
 specific weight
 The shear rate of a fluid is represented by a lower case gamma with a dot above it:
 Austenite (also known as γiron), a metallic nonmagnetic allotrope or solid solution of iron.
Upper case
The uppercase letter Γ is used as a symbol for:
 In mathematics, the gamma function (usually written as Γfunction) is an extension of the factorial to complex numbers
 In probability theory and statistics, the gamma distribution is a twoparameter family of continuous probability distributions.
 circulation in fluid mechanics
 As reflection coefficient in physics and electrical engineering
 The tape alphabet of a Turing machine
See also
Majuscule form  
Α  Β  Γ  Δ  Ε  Ζ  Η  Θ  Ι  Κ  Λ  Μ  Ν  Ξ  Ο  Π  Ρ  Σ  Τ  Υ  Φ  Χ  Ψ  Ω  
Minuscule form  
α  β  γ  δ  ε  ζ  η  θ  ι  κ  λ  μ  ν  ξ  ο  π  ρ  σ  τ  υ  φ  χ  ψ  ω 

