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Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ; Greek Γάμμα) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Gimel Gimel. Letters that arose from Gamma include the Roman C and G and the Cyrillic letters Ge Г and Ghe Ґ.




In isolation

In Modern Greek, it represents either a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ or a voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/. In Ancient Greek, it represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/.

Before velars

Before other velars (κ, χ k, kh), it represents a velar nasal /ŋ/ in Modern as well as Ancient Greek. A double gamma γγ represents the sequence /ŋɡ/ (phonetically varying [ŋɡ~ɡ]) or /ŋɣ/.

International Phonetic Alphabet

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, lowercase gamma (ɣ) represents the voiced velar fricative. A lowercase gamma that lies above the baseline rather than crossing it (ɤ) represents the close-mid back unrounded vowel.

Math and science

Lower case

The lower-case letter γ is used as a symbol for:

Upper case

The upper-case letter Γ is used as a symbol for:

See also

Majuscule form
Minuscule form

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