Matthew 1:1

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===Solomon Caesar Malan===
===Solomon Caesar Malan===
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Passing over a few trifling matters in the first seventeen verses of this chapter, we come to Dr.  Alford’s reading of v. 18.
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::Τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ ἡ γένησις οὕτως ἦν, on which he says, in his digest, that
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::“γέννησις” of the Received Text, which is a probable correction from the verb so often used before, occurs in L. and the rest.”
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He then gives us his authorities for the change : -—
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(unfinished)
[https://books.googleusercontent.com/books/content?req=AKW5Qafdy8H3a7f4N_T25pasCaSObiTfPC1vgHsnlq0hXccUf99QIzjvQD_GCc6rJuOhcwCZABswv-RuJDGL_7SAuSO1SKypB91lwZ3ERPIjxnno0TrlOpUjKtzxo_y6JFqOVNDLNZ9f8x8yjP2yRx8WUz6nVOKjO1nwpDH8F1D6fcYG5tOBBKYCZmR6FcXJ5SCNXkUDGDwkNqz5yfrvV3GoXRWZzMmEE-4ZZHMV2RyUrLXhNUnCio3-2wNy4XbhlngOylHMdHijflR4G5VMvQg_A_IXeeeXNg ]
[https://books.googleusercontent.com/books/content?req=AKW5Qafdy8H3a7f4N_T25pasCaSObiTfPC1vgHsnlq0hXccUf99QIzjvQD_GCc6rJuOhcwCZABswv-RuJDGL_7SAuSO1SKypB91lwZ3ERPIjxnno0TrlOpUjKtzxo_y6JFqOVNDLNZ9f8x8yjP2yRx8WUz6nVOKjO1nwpDH8F1D6fcYG5tOBBKYCZmR6FcXJ5SCNXkUDGDwkNqz5yfrvV3GoXRWZzMmEE-4ZZHMV2RyUrLXhNUnCio3-2wNy4XbhlngOylHMdHijflR4G5VMvQg_A_IXeeeXNg ]

Revision as of 11:54, 19 April 2018

New Testament Matthew 1

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(Textus Receptus, Novum Testamentum, Theodore Beza, 4th folio edition. Geneva. 1598)

(King James Version, Pure Cambridge Edition 1900)

(King James Version 2016 Edition, 2016)

Contents

Interlinear

See Also Matthew 1:1 Interlinear

Strong's Greek Pronunciation KJV 1611 KJV 1900 KJV 2016 Parts of speech Case Tense Number Gender Person Voice Mood
976 ΒΊΒΛΟΣ vi'-vlos The booke The book The book Noun Nominative - Singular Feminine - - -
1078 γενέσεως yen'-es-ee-ooce' of the generation of the generation of the generation Noun Genitive - Singular Feminine - - -
2424 Ἰησοῦ ee-ay-so-oo' of Iesus of Jesus of Jesus Noun Genitive - Singular Masculine - - -
5547 Χριστοῦ khris-to-oo' Christ Christ Christ Noun Genitive - Singular Masculine - - -
5207 υἱοῦ hwee-oo' the sonne the son the Son Noun Genitive - Singular Masculine - - -
1138 Δαβὶδ dav-eeth' of Dauid of David of David Noun - - - - - - -
5207 υἱοῦ hwee-oo' the sonne the son the Son Noun Genitive - Singular Masculine - - -
11 Ἀβραάμ av-rah-arm' of Abraham of Abraham of Abraham Noun - - - - - - -

Commentary

See Also Matthew 1:1 Commentary

Matthew 1:1 is the opening verse of the first chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. Since Matthew is traditionally placed as the first of the four Gospels, this verse commonly serves as the opening to the entire New Testament. It is a sentence without a verb and is more of a heading for what follows in verse 18.

Matthew 1:1 is a small but significant part of 100's of fulfilled Old Testament prophecies concerning the Jewish Messiah. In Genesis 3:15, 4,000 years before it came to pass, it was spoken that the Seed of the woman would bruise the serpent's head. In Genesis 22:18, Abraham was told, “in thy seed shall all nations of he earth be blessed.” This descendant or Seed, would be an Israelite of the tribe of Judah, the kingly tribe Matthew 1:1); of the seed of David (2 Samuel 7:12-13); the exact place of His birth, Bethlehem of Judea, was foretold (Micah 5:2), as was the very time of the Messiah's appearing (Genesis 49:10) and future appearing (Daniel 9:24-26). Then there were the prophecies of His rejection by His own kinsmen (Isaiah 53:2-3); they despised their long-awaited King, the very Hope of Israel. These prophecies were predicted centuries before, and details about His death and its very manner were fulfilled to the letter. There were over 50 prophecies precisely fulfilled on the day of the crucifixion alone! The prophecies of Psalm 22 and Isaiah 53 with the New Testament accounts of the crucifixion are common examples of New Testament literature in the Old Testament.

The book

Βίβλος is translated as ‘The’ book and not simply ‘Book’ due to the normal use of anarthrous nouns in titles. This negates the need for italics here in the article ‘the.’ Anarthrous nouns are generally translated into English with the indefinite article ("a, an"). There are some anarthrous nouns which are qualitative and are often translated without an article. "Anarthrous," in grammar, simply means without the article. In English we have both the definite article (‘the’) and the indefinite article (‘a’), but in Greek there is no indefinite article.

The ending of this noun, -os, tells us that it is nominative in case.

Βίβλος is the inner bark of the papyrus plant which was made into a written book, a sheet, or scroll of writing. There are seven meanings revealed in scripture:

1) It is firstly used here as a book, or scroll (Matthew 1:1),
2) concerning the Pentateuch as the "book of Moses" in Mark 12:26,
3) regarding "the book of the words of Isaiah" that Jesus read from in Luke 3:4,
4) the "book of Psalms" in Luke 20:42 and also in Acts 1:20,
5) as "the book of the prophets" in Acts 7:42,
6) as "the Book of Life" in Philippians 4:3, Revelation 3:5, 20:15
7) and of secular writings in Acts 19:19.
See Also Scriptures Containing 976

The English word Bible stems from the Greek Βίβλος. Interestingly the English word paper comes from papyrus, via Latin, from Greek πάπυρος papyros. The Greek writer Theophrastus, who flourished during the 4th century BC, uses papuros when referring to the plant used as a foodstuff and bublos for the same plant when used for non-food products, such as cordage, basketry, or a writing surface. The more specific term βίβλος biblos, which finds its way into English in such words as bibliography, bibliophile, and bible, refers to the inner bark of the papyrus plant. Papyrus is also the etymon of paper, a similar substance. A folio, borrowed from Latin foliō, is the ablative singular form of folium (“a leaf; a sheet or leaf of paper”), related to foliage.

The Greek word for papyrus as writing material (biblion) and book (biblos) came from the ancient port of Byblos (Lebanese Arabic pronunciation Gebal), which is a Mediterranean city in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon. Gubal appears in the Hebrew Bible under the name Geval (Hebrew: גבל‎). This name means "boundary", "district" or "mountain peak":

  • The ancients of Gebal and the wise men thereof were in thee thy calkers: all the ships of the sea with their mariners were in thee to occupy thy merchandise. Ezekiel 27:9 (KJV)

In the New International Version, it is paraphrased as Byblos:

  • Veteran craftsmen of Byblos were on board as shipwrights to caulk your seams. All the ships of the sea and their sailors came alongside to trade for your wares. Ezekiel 27:9 (NIV)

The Ancient Greek Βύβλος, whence we get our modern Byblos, was the interpretation of Gebal. Papyrus received its early Greek name βύβλος (bublos) from its importation from Egypt to Greece to the Aegean through this city. The Ancient Greek words βίβλος, diminutive βιβλίον (biblos, biblion), plural βίβλοι, diminutive βιβλία (bibli, biblia), and ultimately the word "Bible" ("the (papyrus) book") hence the Holy Bible, derive from that name.

During the Old Egyptian Kingdom, Byblos was virtually an Egyptian colony. First Dynasty tombs used timbers from Byblos. One of the oldest Egyptian words for an oceangoing boat was “Byblos ship”. Many ancient Egyptian objects have been found at Byblos.

Because Beech wood tablets were a common writing material in Germanic societies before the development of paper, the Old English bōc and Old Norse bók both have the primary sense of “beech” but also a secondary sense of “book,” and it is from bōc that the modern word book derives. In modern German, the word for “book” is Buch, with Buche meaning “beech tree.” In the Swedish language, these words are the same, bok meaning both “beech tree” and “book.”

Similarly, in Slavic languages (for example, Russian, Bulgarian, Macedonian) "буква" (bukva—"letter") is cognate with "beech". In Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word "букварь" (bukvar') or "буквар" (bukvar) refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood. Similarly, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense (bound and with separate leaves), originally meant "block of wood".

See Also Βίβλος, Book, Bible, Papyrus, and Anarthrous nouns.

of the generation

γενέσεως of the generation, means to be generated or to be placed in time, where the origination of the eternal Christ's body occurred and the Word became flesh. Christ was not generated from man, but through Mary and from God, linking to verse 18. The genealogy mentioned is of Joseph, and not Jesus. Thus the New King James Version's translation is faulty having "The genealogy of Jesus Christ" because Christ had no genealogy except through His mother.

The exact phrase 'Βίβλος γενέσεως' (at times the book of the genealogy) is used in Genesis 2:4 and 5:1 in the so called Greek Septuagint. This is correct because it concerns God's creation and also to genealogies of man, whereas in Matthew 1:1, it is applied to the eternal, uncreated, Son of God, an thus is translated as generation. The LXX has:

αὕτη ἡ βίβλος γενέσεως οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς ὅτε ἐγένετο ᾗ ἡμέρᾳ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν Genesis 2:4
αὕτη ἡ βίβλος γενέσεως ἀνθρώπων ᾗ ἡμέρᾳ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν αδαμ κατ’ εἰκόνα θεοῦ ἐποίησεν αὐτόν. Genesis 5:1

See Also Genesis 37:2 and Numbers 3:1.

In Hebrew the phrase "book of the genealogy" sepher toledoth (סֵפֶר תֹּולְדֹת) is frequent in Jewish writing. The other genealogy concerning the linage of the family of Jesus appears in Luke 3:23-38. This genealogical list here in Matthew is necessary to prove the linage and pedigree of Jesus Christ's family, and that being raised in the house of Joseph who was the "Son of David" and "Son of Abraham" He fulfills the requirements relating to the prophecies about the coming Messiah.

While some believe the phrase 'Βίβλος γενέσεως' to be merely a title for the first part of the gospel of Matthew (1-17) and not a title to the Gospel of Matthew, nor for the entire New Testament itself, it is most probably linked to verse 18, where Jesus is generated from God, rather than produced through men in the genealogy of verse 2-17. It must be noted that the generation of Jesus Christ, applies to Christ's entire life. Nowhere else in the New Testament does book refer to anything other than an entire work. So it is erroneous to conclude that it is only concerned with the listed genealogy.

Because Jeconiah was cursed, in no way can the linage of Joseph be part of the linage of Jesus, as many modern versions of the bible mistakenly claim by changing the English reading of "generation" into "genealogy" or "linage."

While the long genealogy of names may be of little interest to most modern readers, lineage and descent were of great importance in Jewish society of the time, and a family descent from David and Abraham was crucial to accepting Jesus as the Messiah. The names, at least in the first part of the genealogy, would have been well known to readers. The genealogy provides proof that the promise of mankind's future salvation made in Genesis 3:15 through the "Seed of the woman" is fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth.

Matthew 1:1 has 'genesis' translated as generation (also translated as nature) never as birth, nor as genealogy, which is a separate and distinct word used in the Pastorals.

100's of "gn" sounding words appear in the etymology of Indo-European languages such as Latin, Greek, and English. The "gn" sounding is usually associated with production, birth or origin, such as genesis, beginning, origin, genetics, progenitors, gender, genitals, pregnancy, progeny, congenial, indigenous, geneus, genre, generation etc. A Latin example would be in Matthew 1:25 where primogenitum is used for firstborn. In Latin, gens means a clan, from Hebrew; Gentiles are foreigners. In Greek there are many even in this first chapter of Matthew with egenesay (from gennao) being translated as begat/begot. Just as Gnat has a silent g, some "gn" sounding words also dropped the g, such as gnoel (noel) in the gnativity (naitivity) song. Other examples are nation, nature, innate, benign (used to mean well born), the opposite was malign - but the g sound is maintained in benignant and malignant.

See Also Genealogy of Jesus and Scriptures Containing Generation, Scriptures Containing Generations, and Scriptures Containing Generation and Generations

Solomon Caesar Malan

Passing over a few trifling matters in the first seventeen verses of this chapter, we come to Dr. Alford’s reading of v. 18.

Τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ ἡ γένησις οὕτως ἦν, on which he says, in his digest, that
“γέννησις” of the Received Text, which is a probable correction from the verb so often used before, occurs in L. and the rest.”

He then gives us his authorities for the change : -— (unfinished) [1]

Philip Schaff

Schaff in his Popular Commentary on the New Testament unwittingly reveals were the error originates that genesis simply means birth, the Westcott and Hort text error of having γεννέσίς and not γενέσίς at Matthew 1:18:

The book of the generation (or, birth, the same word in Greek as in Matthew 1:18). Literally, ‘book of birth, birth-book,’ i.e., pedigree, genealogy. The title of the genealogical table, Matthew 1:1-17, not of the whole Gospel, nor of the first two chapters, nor of chap. 1. Possibly the title of an original (Hebrew) document, used by the Evangelist.

Dean Burgon

In Dean Burgon's book the Revision Revised, he says:

Not only do the familiar Parables, Miracles, Discourses of our LORD, trip us up at every step, but we cannot open the first page of the Gospel—no, nor indeed read the first line—without being brought to a standstill. Thus,
1. S. Matthew begins,—The book of the generation of JESUS CHRIST (ver. 1).—Good. But here the margin volunteers two pieces of information: first,—Or, birth: as in ver. 18. We refer to ver. 18, and read—Now the birth of JESUS CHRIST was on this wise. Good again; but the margin says,—Or, generation: as in ver. 1. Are we then to understand that the same Greek word, diversely rendered in English, occurs in both places? We refer to the new Greek Text: and there it stands,—γένεσις in either verse. But if the word be the same, why (on the Revisers' theory) is it diversely rendered?
In the meantime, who knows not that there is all the difference in the world between S. Matthew's γέΝΕσις, in ver. 1,—and the same S. Matthew's γέΝΝΗσις, in ver. 18? The latter, the Evangelist's announcement of the circumstances of the human Nativity of CHRIST: the former, the Evangelist's unobtrusive way of recalling the Septuagintal rendering of Gen. ii. 4 and v. 1:393 the same Evangelist's calm method of guiding the devout and thoughtful student to discern in the Gospel the History of the new Creation,—by thus providing that when first the Gospel opens its lips, it shall syllable the name of the first book of the elder Covenant? We are pointing out that it more than startles—it supremely offends—one who is even slenderly acquainted 120with the treasures of wisdom hid in the very diction of the N. T. Scriptures, to discover that a deliberate effort has been made to get rid of the very foremost of those notes of Divine intelligence, by confounding two words which all down the ages have been carefully kept distinct; and that this effort is the result of an exaggerated estimate of a few codices which happen to be written in the uncial character, viz. two of the IVth century (B א); one of the Vth (C); two of the VIth (P Z); one of the IXth (Δ); one of the Xth (S).
The Versions394—(which are our oldest witnesses)—are perforce only partially helpful here. Note however, that the only one which favoursγένεσις is the heretical Harkleian Syriac, executed in the VIIth century. The Peschito and Cureton's Syriac distinguish between γένεσις in ver. 1 and γέννησις in ver. 18: as do the Slavonic and the Arabian Versions. The Egyptian, Armenian, Æthiopic and Georgian, have only one word for both. Let no one suppose however that therefore their testimony is ambiguous. It is γέννησις (not γένεσις) which they exhibit, both in ver. 1 and in ver. 18.395 The Latin (generatio) is an equivocal rendering certainly: but the earliest Latin writer who quotes the two places, (viz. Tertullian) employs the word genitura in S. Matth. i. 1,—but nativitas in ver. 18,—which no one seems to have noticed.396 Now, Tertullian, (as one who sometimes 121wrote in Greek,) is known to have been conversant with the Greek copies of his day; and his day, be it remembered, is A.D.190. He evidently recognized the parallelism between S. Matt. i. 1 and Gen. ii. 4,—where the old Latin exhibits liber creaturæ or facturæ, as the rendering of βίβλος γενέσεως. And so much for the testimony of the Versions.
But on reference to Manuscript and to Patristic authority397 we are encountered by an overwhelming amount of testimony for γέννησις in ver. 18: and this, considering the nature of the case, is an extraordinary circumstance. Quite plain is it that the Ancients were wide awake to the difference between spelling the word with one N or with two,—as the little dissertation of the heretic Nestorius398 in itself would be enough to prove. Γέννησις, in the meantime, is the word employed by Justin M.,399—by Clemens Alex.,400—by Athanasius,401—by Gregory of Nazianzus,402—by Cyril Alex.,403—by Nestorius,404—by Chrysostom,405—by Theodorus 122Mopsuest.,406—and by three other ancients.407Even more deserving of attention is it that Irenæus408 (A.D. 170)—(whom Germanus409 copies at the end of 550 years)—calls attention to the difference between the spelling of ver. 1 and ver. 18. So does Didymus:410—so does Basil:411—so does Epiphanius.412—Origen413 (A.D. 210) is even eloquent on the subject.—Tertullian (A.D. 190) we have heard already.—It is a significant circumstance, that the only Patristic authorities discoverable on the other side are Eusebius, Theodoret, and the authors of an heretical Creed414—whom Athanasius holds up to scorn.415 ... Will the Revisionists still pretend to tell us that γέννησις in verse 18 is a plain and clear error?

  • 393 Αὕτη ἡ βίβλος γενέσεως—οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς: also—ἀνθρώπων.
  • 394 For my information on this subject, I am entirely indebted to one who is always liberal in communicating the lore of which he is perhaps the sole living depositary in England,—the Rev. Dr. S. C. Malan. See his Seven Chapters of the Revision of 1881, revised,—p. 3. But especially should the reader be referred to Dr. Malan's learned dissertation on this very subject in his Select Readings in Westcott and Hort's Gr. Text of S. Matth.,—pp. 1 to 22.
  • 395 So Dr. Malan in his Select Readings (see above note 1),—pp. 15, 17, 19.
  • 396 Liber genituræ Jesu Christi filii David, filii Abraham ... Gradatim ordo deducitur ad Christi nativitatem.—De Carne Christi, c. 22.
  • 397 A friendly critic complains that we do not specify which editions of the Fathers we quote. Our reply is—This [was] a Review, not a Treatise. We are constrained to omit such details. Briefly, we always quote the best Edition. Critical readers can experience no difficulty in verifying our references. A few details shall however be added: Justin (Otto): Irenæus (Stieren): Clemens Al. (Potter): Tertullian (Oehler): Cyprian (Baluze): Eusebius (Gaisford): Athanas. (1698): Greg. Nyss. (1638): Epiphan. (1622): Didymus (1769): Ephraem Syr. (1732): Jerome (Vallarsi): Nilus (1668-73): Chrysostom (Montfaucon): Cyril (Aubert): Isidorus (1638): Theodoret (Schulze): Maximus (1675): John Damascene (Lequien): Photius (1653). Most of the others (as Origen, Greg. Nazianz., Basil, Cyril of Jer., Ambrose, Hilary, Augustine), are quoted from the Benedictine editions. When we say Mai, we always mean his Nova Biblioth. PP. 1852-71. By Montfaucon, we mean the Nov. Coll. PP. 1707. It is necessity that makes us so brief.
  • 398 Concilia, iii. 521 a to d.
  • 399 i.2 340.
  • 400 P. 889 line 37 (γένησιν).—by Athanasius,
  • 401 i. 943 c.—by Gregory of Nazianzus,
  • 402 i. 735.—by Cyril Alex.,
  • 403 v.1 363, 676.—by Nestorius,
  • 404 Concil. iii. 325 ( = Cyril v.2 28 a).—by Chrysostom,
  • 405 vii. 48; viii. 314.—by Theodorus 122 Mopsuest.,
  • 406 In Matth. ii. 16.—and by three other ancients.
  • 407 Ps.-Athanas. ii. 306 and 700: ps.-Chrysost. xii. 694. Even more deserving of attention is it that Irenæus
  • 408 P. 470. (a.d. 170)—(whom Germanus
  • 409 Gall. ix. 215. copies at the end of 550 years)—calls attention to the difference between the spelling of ver. 1 and ver. 18. So does Didymus:
  • 410 Trin. 188.—so does Basil:
  • 411 i. 250 b.—so does Epiphanius.
  • 412 i. 426 a (γένησις).—Origen
  • 413 Διαφέρει γένεσις καὶ γέννησις; γένεσις μὲν γάρ ἐστι παρὰ Θεοῦ πρώτη πλάσις, γέννησις δὲ ἡ ἐκ καταδίκης τοῦ θανάτου διὰ τὴν παράβασιν ἐξ ἀλλήλων διαδοχή.—Galland. xiv. Append. pp. 73, 74. (a.d. 210) is even eloquent on the subject.—Tertullian (a.d. 190) we have heard already.—It is a significant circumstance, that the only Patristic authorities discoverable on the other side are Eusebius, Theodoret, and the authors of an heretical Creed
  • 414 [dated 22 May a.d. 359] ap. Athan. i. 721 d.—whom Athanasius holds up to scorn.
  • 415 i. 722 c.

Johannes Piscator

Johannes Piscator in Piscator, Analysis (Matt), p. 12 says:

Liber generationis. βίβλος γενέσεως. Id est, recensio maiorum, quae usitate nominatur genealogia. Phrasis Hebraea, cuius exemplum extat Gen. 5.v.1. quanquam discrimine duplici. nam illic habetur numero plurali, liber generationum: deinde per generationes illic intelliguntur posteri: dicitur enim, liber generationum Adami: et recensentur illic posteri Adami usque ad Noachum. At hic vocabulo generationis intelliguntur maiores: dicitur enim, Liber generationis Iesu Christi, et recensentur maiores Christi, initio facto ab Abrahamo. An vero numerus singularis γενέσεως pro plurali γενέσεων irrepserit (id quod facile fieri potuit) et hic et in versione Graeca loci ex Genesi citati, incertum est. Nomen libri Hebraeum Sépher, proprie videtur significare recensionem: est enim deductum a verbo Saphár, quod significat numerare: sed per metonymiam adiuncti usurpatur ad significandum librum in quo recensio annotatur: ac tum synecdochice ad signficandum quamvis librum. Generatio autem pro iis qui vel generarunt, ut hic: vel generati sunt, ut in Genesi: per metonymiam effecti vel efficientis dicitur. Etenim generatio ut effectum est generantis: ita efficiens est eius qui generatur. Johannes Piscator, Analysis logica Evangelii secundum Matthaeum. Una cum scholiis et observationibus locorum doctrinae

of Jesus Christ

Ἰησοῦ The Hebrew Yeshua means "the LORD (Jehovah) is salvation."

Beza's 1598 has ȣ for οῦ in this and many other places. The οῦ has been retained above for ease of reading.

Χριστοῦ. Christ meaning - The Messiah, anointed one. The word anointed means to be placed into a position, like a king or a priest. A similar word is appointed.

John Mill

John Mill omits Χριστοῦ in his “Prolegomena” of 1707, p. cxxiv-a (In his 1710 “Prolegomena” Mill appeals to the Ethiopic version):

Sed et alias quasdam notare iam lubet, in quibus Codex iste optimus, et aut unus e primaevis, aut ad primaevum aliquem expressus, Archetypum textum retinet in locis nonnullis, ubi ab ipso caeteri, quod video, abierunt. In ipso Evangeliorum limine vix est quam, ut probem simplicem lectionem Aethiopis, βίβλος γενέσεως Ιησοῦ· Matthaei siquidem est ostendere non Jesum Christum a Davide genus ducere; Messas enim (quisquis ille) ab ipso oriturum esse, notum omnibus: sed Jesum Nazarenum e stirpe Davidis, ipsiusque Abrahami fuisse, ideoque vocatum fuisse, (Mat. 1. 16.) h. e. Hebraeorum phrasi, vere fuisse Christum, seu Messiam,...John Mill, “Prolegomena,” in Novum Testamentum. Cum lectionibus variantibus MSS. exemplarium, versionum, editionum, SS. Patrum et Scriptorum ecclesiasticorum; et in easdem notis. Accedunt loca Scripturae parallela, aliaque ἐξηγητικά et appendix ad variantes lectiones. Praemittitur dissertatio, in qua de libris N.T. et Canonis constitutione agitur, historia S. Textus N. Foederis ad nostra usque tempora deducitur, et quid in hac editione praestitum sit, explicatur (Oxford: Theatrum Sheldoniacum, 1707), pp. i–clxxvi

the Son

In the movie Zeitgeist, it was claimed that the word 'son' in the term "Son of God" is related to the sun, making Jesus a solar deity. The trouble is that “sun” and “son” cannot be equated. In Hebrew “Son” is pronounced as ben and “sun” is shemesh. In Greek “son” is huios and “sun” is pronounced as helios. (Bible Dictionary Vol. 8 pgs. 1033-50) — Given that the two terms are only similar in English but not in the original Biblical languages, the most important piece of evidence that supposedly identifies Jesus as a Sun god and as the center of the Zodiac is superficial.

of David

υἱοῦ Δαβίδ. The "Son of David" (בֶּן דָּוִד,is a title of the Messiah, the Savior. Matthew 15:22, 20:20, 21:15; Mark 10:47; and Luke 18:38.

Some manuscripts spell Δαβίδ as Δαυεὶδ (with υε in place of a β) and Δαυὶδ (with υ in place of a β). Δαυεὶδ and Δαυὶδ are also forms in the Greek Septuagint.

The word son is capitalized here because the in Matthew 15:22, 20:30, 21:9, 22:42, etc. the KJV in the Pure Cambridge Edition capitalizes the word. Bible Protector claims that lower case “s” demotes Jesus from deity in these examples, but seems to have no issue with Matthew 1:1.

In earlier manuscripts, such as Codex Freerianus (Manuscript Washington, W 032), Δαβίδ is abbreviated to “DAD” with Nomina Sacra (a line across the top of these letters) at Matt. 12:23. A scribe working from such a manuscript when later seeking to spell this name out in greater detail, might spell it as, “Dabid” or “Daueid” or “Dauid.” It seems that in the tradition of the Byzantines they varied between such diverse spellings for phonetic reasons.

the Son of Abraham

υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ. The "Son of Abraham" reveals that Christ is the promised Seed of the Abrahamic covenant. While the title "Son of David" was a common messianic title, "son of Abraham" was an expression that could refer to any Jew.

Some heretics assume that Jesus cannot be of the Seed of Abraham because He had no earthly father. But Jesus was clearly adopted by Joseph, the husband of Jesus' mother, Mary. So, while Jesus was not conceived by Joseph, he was the certainly considered son of Joseph. Joseph was a descendant of Abraham (see Matthew 1:2-16). In any case, Jesus was a physical descendant of Abraham because he was conceived of Mary. Mary, whose father was Eli, was a descendant of Abraham (Luke 3:23-38). The assumption that Abraham can only have descendants through males is simply mistaken. As can be seen in the case of Zelophehad:

Numbers 26:33 And Zelophehad the son of Hepher had no sons, but daughters: and the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, and Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah.
Numbers 27:1-11 Then came the daughters of Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of Manasseh the son of Joseph: and these are the names of his daughters; Mahlah, Noah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Tirzah. And they stood before Moses, and before Eleazar the priest, and before the princes and all the congregation, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying, "Our father died in the wilderness, and he was not in the company of them that gathered themselves together against the Lord in the company of Korah; but died in his own sin, and had no sons. Why should the name of our father be done away from among his family, because he hath no son? Give unto us therefore a possession among the brethren of our father."

And Moses brought their cause before the Lord.

And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, "The daughters of Zelophehad speak right: thou shalt surely give them a possession of an inheritance among their father's brethren; and thou shalt cause the inheritance of their father to pass unto them. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying,
  • If a man die, and have no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughter.
  • And if he have no daughter, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his brethren.
  • And if he have no brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his father's brethren.
  • And if his father have no brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his kinsman that is next to him of his family, and he shall possess it: and it shall be unto the children of Israel a statute of judgment, as the Lord commanded Moses.

So, daughters as well as sons are the descendants of Abraham, and it is sufficient for Jesus that he was a son of Mary. The fact that from Genesis the bible clearly talked about the woman's seed, not the mans. Consider:

Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
Galatians 3:16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, and to seeds, as of many; but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ.

New King James Version

The NKJV changed this verse to "The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ..."

While we all are aware that we have the genealogy of Christ in this chapter, God did not use the Greek word genealogia here (which means "genealogy" exactly, as in 1 Timothy 1:4 and Titus 3:9, and where genealogies are condemned). Instead, the Greek word in the Textus Receptus is geneseos.

The KJV translated the Greek word geneseos (which comes from genesis) as "generation", which is precisely what Strong's Exhaustive Concordance has at 1078 -

genesis ghen-es-is -- nativity, fig. nature, generation, nature (-ral).

The meaning of "genesis" is origin or birth, or the sphere of this earthly life. So "generation" is faithful and accurate, and subject to further exposition. "Genealogy" is a replacement of "genesis", which is an unauthorized substitution, and changes the meaning. What Matthew is saying is that his Gospel is the book of the birth, the origin, and the whole sphere of the earthly life of Jesus Christ. Christ's genealogy is only a portion of that.

Modern English Version

The 2014 MEV has son without the capital S.

Early Church Writers

Origen

Origen (185 AD-254 AD) wrote:

For Matthew, writing for the Hebrews who looked for Him who was to come of the line of Abraham and of David, says: (Mt 1:1) The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. And Mark, knowing what he writes, narrates the beginning of the Gospel; we may perhaps find what he aims at in John; in the beginning the Word, God the Word. But Luke, though he says at the beginning of Acts, The former treatise did I make about all that Jesus began to do and to teach, yet leaves to him who lay on Jesus’ breast the greatest and completest discourses about Jesus. For none of these plainly declared His Godhead, as John does when he makes Him say, I am the light of the world, I am the way and the truth and the life, I am the resurrection, I am the door, I am the good shepherd; and in the Apocalypse, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.
4.22 Ματθαῖος μὲν γὰρ τοῖς προσδοκῶσι τὸν ἐξ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Δαβὶδ Ἑβραίοις γράφων· Βίβλος͵ φησί͵ γενέσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ͵ υἱοῦ Δαβίδ͵ υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ͵ καὶ Μάρκος͵ εἰδὼς ὃ γράφει͵ ἀρχήν διηγεῖται τοῦ εὐαγγελίου͵ τάχα εὑρισκόντων ἡμῶν τὸ τέλος αὐτοῦ παρὰ τῷ Ἰωάννῃ τὸν ἐν ἀρχῇ λόγον͵ θεὸν λόγον. Ἀλλὰ καὶ Λου κᾶς ἀλλά γε τηρεῖ τῷ ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος ἀναπεσόντι τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοὺς μείζονας καὶ τελειοτέρους περὶ Ἰησοῦ λόγους· οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἐκείνων ἀκράτως ἐφανέρωσεν αὐτοῦ τὴν θεότητα ὡς Ἰωάννης͵ παραστήσας αὐτὸν λέγοντα· Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἀνάστασις· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα· Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός· καὶ ἐν τῇ Ἀποκα λύψει Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ Α καὶ τὸ Ω͵ ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος͵ ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος.(http://ldysinger.stjohnsem.edu/@texts/0250_origen/john/01_john_01-21.htm) Origen (Commentary of St. John’s Gospel, vol. 1, A.E. Brooke, p 6, 20)

Eusebius of Caesarea

Eusebius of Caesarea (260 340) said:

Βίβλος γενέσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ υἱοῦ Δαβίδ υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ Eusebius of Caesarea (Demonstratio Evangelica, p337, 14, Eusebius Werke, Ivar A. Heikel)

Greek

See Also Matthew 1:1 Greek

Textus Receptus

Complutensian Polyglot

Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1514 Complutensian Polyglot
Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1514 Complutensian Polyglot

See Also Matthew 1:1 Complutensian Polyglot 1514

Aldine

Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1518 Greek New Testament of Aldine
Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1518 Greek New Testament of Aldine

Cephaleus

Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1524 of Wolf Cephaleus
Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1524 of Wolf Cephaleus

Desiderius Erasmus

Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1516 Novum Instrumentum omne of Erasmus
Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1516 Novum Instrumentum omne of Erasmus
Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1522 Greek New Testament of Erasmus
Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1522 Greek New Testament of Erasmus
Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1535 Novum Testamentum omne of Erasmus
Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1535 Novum Testamentum omne of Erasmus

Colinæus

Stephanus (Robert Estienne)

Matthew 1:1 in the 1546 Greek New Testament of Stephanus
Matthew 1:1 in the 1546 Greek New Testament of Stephanus

Theodore Beza

Matthew 1:1 in Beza's 1565 Greek New Testament
Matthew 1:1 in Beza's 1565 Greek New Testament
  • 1565 (Beza Octavo 1st)
Matthew 1:1 in Beza's 1567 Greek New Testament
Matthew 1:1 in Beza's 1567 Greek New Testament
Matthew 1:1 in Beza's 1588 Greek New Testament
Matthew 1:1 in Beza's 1588 Greek New Testament
Matthew 1:1 in Beza's 1598 Greek New Testament
Matthew 1:1 in Beza's 1598 Greek New Testament

See Also Matthew 1:1 Beza 1598 (Beza)

  • 1604 (Beza Octavo 5th)

Plantin Polyglot

Matthew 1:1 in Plantin's 1584 Greek Latin Polyglot
Matthew 1:1 in Plantin's 1584 Greek Latin Polyglot

Elias Hutter

Elzevir

Scholz

Footnote Rec. Δαβίδ. [et sic passim].
Matthew 1:1 Footnote in Greek in the 1841 English Hexapla of Johann Martin Augustin Scholz
Matthew 1:1 Footnote in Greek in the 1841 English Hexapla of Johann Martin Augustin Scholz

Scrivener

Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1880 Greek of Scrivener
Matthew 1:1 in Greek in the 1880 Greek of Scrivener

Other Greek

Matthew 1:1 in Papyrus 1 250 AD
Matthew 1:1 in Papyrus 1 250 AD

Anglo Saxon Translations

  • 990 her is on cneorisse-bóc hælendes cristes dauides suna. Abrahames suna. (Anglo-Saxon Gospels Manuscript 140, Corpus Christi College by Aelfric) Wessex Gospels
  • 1200 Soðliche wel is to understanden þæt æfter matheus ge-rechednysse her is on cneornysse boc. hælendes cristes dauiðes suna. abrahames suna. (Anglo-Saxon Gospels Hatton Manuscript 38, Bodleian Library by unknown author)

English Translations

Matthew 1:1 in the 1611 King James Version
Matthew 1:1 in the 1611 King James Version
Matthew 1:1 in Tyndale's 1535 Middleburch imprint
Matthew 1:1 in Tyndale's 1535 Middleburch imprint
Matthew 1:1 in the 1599 Geneva Bible
Matthew 1:1 in the 1599 Geneva Bible
Matthew 1:1 footnote in the 1599 Geneva Bible
Matthew 1:1 footnote in the 1599 Geneva Bible

Foreign Language Translations

See also Bible translations into Afrikaans

Afrikaans

  • 1933 (Ta Biblia Ta Logia - J. D. du Toit, E. E. van Rooyen, J. D. Kestell, H. C. M. Fourie, and BB Keet
  • 1953 Die geslagsregister van Jesus Christus, die seun van Dawid, die seun van Abraham:
  • 1982 Paraphrase - Die Lewende Bybel, Christelike Uitgewersmaatskappy (CUM)
  • 1982 South African Bible Society - E. P. Groenewald, A. H. van Zyl, P. A. Verhoef, J. L. Helberg, and W. Kempen
  • 1983 © Bybelgenootskap van Suid Afrika
  • 2001 The Nuwe Wêreld-vertaling van die Heilige Skrif is an Afrikaans translation of the 1984 English translation of the Bible by the Watchtower Society.
  • 2002 Die Boodskap
  • 2002 DieBybel@Kinders.co.za - Gert Prinsloo, Phil Botha, Willem Boshoff, Hennie Stander, Dirk Human, Stephan Joubert, and Jan van der Watt.
  • 2006 The Nuwe Lewende Vertaling (literally "New Living Translation")
  • 2008 Bybel vir Almal - South African Bible Society, Bart Oberholzer, Bernard Combrink, Hermie van Zyl, Francois Tolmie, Christo van der Merwe, Rocco Hough en Elmine Roux.
  • 2014 Direct Translation, South African Bible Society
  • 2014 Afrikaans Standard Version, CUM Books

Akan

Albabian

  • Abrahamit i lindi Isaku; Isakut i lindi Jakobi; Jakobit i lindi Juda dhe vëllezërit e tij.

Amuzgo de Guerrero

  • 1973 Amuzgo de Guerrero (AMU) Copyright © 1973, 1999 by La Liga Biblica
  • 1999

Armenian

  • Աբրահամ ծնաւ Իսահակը. Իսահակ ծնաւ Յակոբը. Յակոբ ծնաւ Յուդան ու անոր եղբայրները.

Arabic

  • 1516
  • 1591
  • 1616
  • 1622
  • 1671 Biblia Arabica. de propaganda fide. Arabic and Latin Bible printed in Rome by Abraham Ecchellensis and Louis Maracci
  • كتاب ميلاد يسوع المسيح ابن داود ابن ابراهيم (Arabic Smith & Van Dyke)
  • 1988 Arabic Life Application Bible (ALAB) Copyright © 1988 by Biblica
  • 2009 Arabic Bible: Easy-to-Read Version (ERV-AR) Copyright © 2009 by World Bible Translation Center

Aramaic/Syriac

  • ܟܬܒܐ ܕܝܠܝܕܘܬܗ ܕܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܒܪܗ (Aramaic Peshitta)
  • 1000 ܟܬܒܐ ܕܝܠܝܕܘܬܗ ܕܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܒܪܗ ܕܕܘܝܕ ܒܪܗ ܕܐܒܪܗܡ ܀ Khaboris Codex
  • 1886 ܟܬܒܐ ܕܬܘ̈ܠܕܬܐ ܕܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܒܪܗ ܕܕܘܝܕ ܒܪܗ ܕܐܒܪܗܡ

Basque

  • 1571 IESVS CHRIST Dauid-en semearen, Abrahamen semearen generationeco Liburuä.

Bulgarian

  • 1940 Родословието на Исуса Христа, син на Давида, син на Авраама. (Матей 1:1) (1940 Bulgarian Bible)
  • Родословието на Исуса Христа, син на Давида, син на Авраама. (Матей 1:1) (Bulgarian Bible)

Cherokee

  • 1860 ᎯᎠ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᏧᏁᏢᏔᏅᏒ ᏥᏌ ᎦᎶᏁᏛ, ᏕᏫ ᎤᏪᏥ, ᎡᏆᎭᎻ ᎤᏪᏥ. Cherokee New Testament (CHR)

Chinese

  • 1 亚 伯 拉 罕 的 後 裔 , 大 卫 的 子 孙 ( 後 裔 子 孙 原 文 都 作 儿 子 下 同 ) , 耶 稣 基 督 的 家 谱 : (馬 太 福 音 1:1) (Chinese Union Version (Simplified))
  • 1 亞 伯 拉 罕 的 後 裔 , 大 衛 的 子 孫 ( 後 裔 子 孫 原 文 都 作 兒 子 下 同 ) , 耶 穌 基 督 的 家 譜 : (馬 太 福 音 1:1) (Chinese Union Version (Traditional))
  • 創1:1 起初, 上帝創造天地。 (Chinese King James Version)

Croatian

Czech

Danish

Dutch

Esperanto

Finnish

French

  • Livre de la généalogie de Jésus Christ, fils de David, fils d'Abraham: (French Darby)
  • 1744 Le Livre de la Généalogie de Jésus-Christ, fils de David, fils d'Abraham. (Martin 1744)
  • 1744 Livre généalogique de JÉSUS-CHRIST, fils de David, fils d'Abraham. (Ostervald 1744)
  • 1864 (Augustin Crampon)
  • 1910
  • 2006 (King James Française)

German

  • 1545 Dies ist das Buch von der Geburt Jesu Christi, der da ist ein Sohn Davids, des Sohnes Abrahams. (Luther 1545)
  • 1871 Buch des Geschlechts Jesu Christi, des Sohnes Davids, des Sohnes Abrahams. (Elberfelder 1871)
  • 1912 Dies ist das Buch von der Geburt Jesu Christi, der da ist ein Sohn Davids, des Sohnes Abrahams. (Luther 1912)

Greek

  • 1904 Βίβλος γενέσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, υἱοῦ Δαυῒδ, υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ. (Greek Orthodox (B. Antoniades))
  • ΒΙΒΛΟΣ τῆς γενεαλογίας τοῦ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, υἱοῦ τοῦ Δαβίδ, υἱοῦ τοῦ Ἀβραάμ. Modern Greek (Trinitarian Bible Society)

Hungarian

Indonesian

  • 1733 Surat 'atsal Xisaj 'Elmesehh, 'anakh laki 2 Da`ud, 'anakh laki 2 'Ibrahim. (Leydekker Draft)
  • 1863 Sabermoela, ini soerat asalnja JESOES KRISTOES, anak {Luk 1:31,32} Dawoed, anak Ibrahim. (Klinkert)
  • 1879 BAHWA inilah sjadjarah ISA ALMASIH, ija-itoe anak Da'oed, anak Iberahim. (Klinkert)
  • 1912 Bahwa inilah surat keturunan Isa Almaseh, Anak Daud anak Ibrahim. (Shellabear Draft)
  • 1913 Ini-lah kitab kturunan Isa Almaseh, anak Da'ud, anak Ibrahim. (Melayu BABA)
  • 1958 Bahwa inilah silsilah Yesus Kristus, yaitu anak Daud, anak Ibrahim. (Terjemahan Lama)
  • 1969 Inilah silsilah Jesus, Putera David, Putera Abraham. (ENDE)
  • 1974 Inilah silsilah Yesus Kristus, anak Daud, anak Abraham. (Terjemahan Baru)
  • 1985 Inilah daftar nenek moyang Yesus Kristus, keturunan Daud, keturunan Abraham. Dari Abraham sampai Daud, nama-nama nenek moyang Yesus sebagai berikut: (BIS)
  • 1989 INILAH nenek moyang Yesus Kristus, keturunan Raja Daud dan keturunan Abraham: (FAYH)
  • 2000 Inilah silsilah Isa Al Masih, anak Daud, anak Ibrahim: (Shellabear)
  • 2006 Inilah silsilah Yesus Kristus. Ia berasal dari keturunan Daud, keturunan Abraham. (WBTC Draft)
  • 2008 Kitab silsilah YESUS Kristus, anak Daud, anak Abraham. (MILT)

Italian

  • 1649 LIBRO della generazione di Gesù Cristo, figliuolo di Davide, figliuolo di Abrahamo. (Giovanni Diodati Bible 1649)
  • 1927 Genealogia di Gesù Cristo figliuolo di Davide, figliuolo d’Abramo. (Riveduta Bible 1927)

Japanese

  • 1928 アラハムの子、ダビデの子、イエスキリストの系図(けいず)の巻(かん) (Naoji Nagai)

Kabyle

Khmer

Latin

Matthew 1:1 in Latin in the 1516 Novum Instrumentum omne of Erasmus
Matthew 1:1 in Latin in the 1516 Novum Instrumentum omne of Erasmus
Matthew 1:1 in Latin in the 1567 Latin New Testament of Theodore Beza
Matthew 1:1 in Latin in the 1567 Latin New Testament of Theodore Beza
  • liber generationis Iesu Christi filii David filii Abraham Latin Vulgate
  • 1527 Liber generationis Iesu Christ fili Dauid, fili Abraham. (Erasmus 1527)
  • 1527 liber generationis Iesu Christi filii David filii Abraham (Erasmus Vulgate 1527)
  • 1565 (Beza)
  • 1598 (Beza)

Latvian

Maori

Norwegian

  • 1930 Jesu Kristi, Davids sønns, Abrahams sønns ættetavle:

Pidgin

Portugese

Potawatomi

  • 1833 (Potawatomi Matthew and Acts)

Romainian

Russian

Sanskrit

Shur

Spanish

See Also Bible translations (Spanish)

Swahili

  • Yesu Kristo alikuwa mzawa wa Daudi, mzawa wa Abrahamu. Hii ndiyo orodha ya ukoo wake:

Swedish

  • 1917 Detta är Jesu Kristi, Davids sons, Abrahams sons, släkttavla. (Swedish - Svenska 1917)

Syriac

Matthew 1:1 in the 1555 Syriac New Testament
Matthew 1:1 in the 1555 Syriac New Testament
Matthew 1:1 in the 1886 Syriac New Testament
Matthew 1:1 in the 1886 Syriac New Testament
  • 1555 Johann Albrecht Widmanstadt
  • 1645 G. Sionita (Paris Polyglot, 1645).
  • 1657 B. Walton (London Polyglot, 1657).
  • 1823 S. Lee (1823)
  • 1852 Urmia edition (1852)
  • 1913 Joseph de Qelayta/Trinitarian Bible Society (1913).
  • 1892 Mosul edition (1887–92)
  • 1851 Beirut (1951)

ܟܬܵܒ̣ܵܐ ܕܝܼܠܝܼܕܘܼܬܹܗ ܕܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܡܫܝܼܚܵܐ: ܒܪܘܼܢܹܗ ܕܕܵܘܝܼܕ: ܒܪܘܼܢܹܗ ܕܐܲܒ̣ܪܵܗܵܡ.

Tagalog

  • 1905 Ang aklat ng lahi ni Jesucristo, na anak ni David, na anak ni Abraham. (Ang Dating Biblia 1905)

Thai

(Thai KJV)

Turkish

Ukrainian

Urdu

Vietnamese

  • 1934 Gia phổ Đức Chúa Jêsus Christ, con cháu Đa-vít và con cháu A�p-ra-ham. (Ma-thi-ô 1:1 Vietnamese Bible) (VIET)

Welsh

Critical Apparatus

Commentaries

Commentaries

Verse specific

Range specific

Chapter specific



See Also

External Links

<< - Malachi 4:6 - Matthew 1:2 - >>






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